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Intro to DNA DNA = Deoxyribonucleic acid -double polymer of nucleotides -SS chromosomes contain 1 molecule of DNA (re: double polymer of nuc’s) -after DNA replication, a DS chromosome contains 2 complete polymers of DNA

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intro to dna

Intro to DNA

DNA = Deoxyribonucleic acid

-double polymer of nucleotides

-SS chromosomes contain 1 molecule of DNA (re: double polymer of nuc’s)

-after DNA replication, a DS chromosome contains 2 complete polymers of DNA

-sequence of nucleotides of DNA codes for sequence of amino acids of protein (process referred to as protein synthesis)

-protein synthesis = DNA  RNA  Protein

- The pathway of protein synthesis is also referred to as the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

dna is a polymer of nucleotides
DNA is a polymer of nucleotides
  • A nucleotide contains three essential parts:
    • 5 carbon sugar
      • Deoxyribose in DNA
      • Ribose in RNA
    • Nitrogenous base
      • Adenine, Guanine = purines
      • Thymine, (Uracil), Cytosine = pyrimidines
    • Phosphate group
events leading to dna model proposed by watson and crick 1953
Events leading to DNA model proposed by Watson and Crick (1953)
  • Chargaff’s rules:
    • the proportion of A’s in DNA = the proportion of T’s
    • The same holds true for G’s and C’s
  • Franklin’s X-ray diffraction photos:
    • Suggested DNA was helical and perhaps contained two separate chains of nucleotides separated by a discrete diameter
  • Watson/Crick model fit the available data:
    • Each “backbone” of alternating sugar – phosphate
    • Each backbone has a polarity in that each is oriented in the opposite direction
    • Complementary base pairing between purine and pyrimidine:
      • A binds to T (forming 2 H bonds)
      • G binds with C (forming 3 H bonds)
    • Model suggested a mechanism of DNA replication and of protein synthesis
slide6
DNA structure with double polymer of DNA nucleotides showing antiparallel orientation of complementary nucleotide strands
basics of dna replication
Basics of DNA replication
  • The DNA helix “unzips” exposing the 2 single-stranded parental templates of nucleotides
  • New nucleotides are added against each exposed nucleotide in a complementary fashion
  • Since the enzyme which completes this task “reads” the DNA in only 1 direction, it affects the process of DNA replication
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