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Hackman & Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model. Core Dimensions. Psychological States. Outcomes. Skill Variety Task Identity Task Signif. High intrinsic motivation High job per- ormance High job satis- faction Low absentee ism & turnover. Meaningfulness of Work. Responsibility

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hackman oldham s job characteristics model
Hackman & Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model

Core Dimensions

Psychological States


Skill Variety

Task Identity

Task Signif.

High intrinsic


High job per-


High job satis-


Low absentee

ism & turnover


of Work


for outcomes


Knowledge of



moderating variables for the job characteristics model
Moderating Variables for the Job Characteristics Model
  • Growth need strength
    • job is a vehicle for personal growth, sense of achievement, avenue for feeling success
  • Knowledge and skills
  • Satisfaction with extrinsic aspects of work
motivating potential score
Motivating Potential Score

Skill Variety +Task Identity+Task Significance








implementing concepts for the job characteristics model
Implementing Concepts for the Job Characteristics Model
  • Combine tasks: Effects skill variety, task identity, & task significance
  • Group tasks into natural work units: Effects task significance and task identity
  • Give workers contact with customers: Effects skill variety, autonomy, feedback
  • Vertically load jobs: Effects autonomy
  • Open feedback channels: Effects feedback
designing jobs for teams
Designing Jobs for Teams
  • Team has to be an identifiable group, doing a specified piece of work, and be self-managing
  • Key behaviors: Ask for ideas, give suggestions,. listen to others, share information, help others
  • Manager’s role: Make alterations needed for effective group performance, consult
goals that motivate
Goals That Motivate
  • Specific Goals
  • Difficult Goals
  • Goal Acceptance
  • Goal Feedback
why goals motivate
Why Goals Motivate
  • Mobilize energy in relation to goal
  • Focus attention towards goals attainment
  • Encourages setting of action plans or strategies for goal attainment
  • Encourages persistence until goal is attained
enhancing goal acceptance
Enhancing Goal Acceptance
  • Participation
  • Rewards
  • Supportiveness
incentives for individuals
Incentives for Individuals
  • For Executives
    • Compensation tied to achieving strategic goals
  • For Lower Level Employees
    • Tied to performance: bonuses, commissions, piecework
incentives for groups
Incentives for Groups
  • Team incentives
  • Profit sharing
  • Gain sharing
  • Stock options
where pay fails to motivate
Where Pay Fails to Motivate
  • Bonuses or merit pay is too small
  • Non-existent link between pay and performance
  • Performance appraisal is done poorly
  • Effect of unions
  • Adaptation problems
effective reward systems
Effective Reward Systems
  • Set high goals for performance
  • Develop accurate ways to measure performance
  • Train supervisors in performance appraisal
  • Link pay to performance
  • Make increases noticeable and meaningful
backwards forwards
Backwards & Forwards
  • Summing up: Examined how Hackman’s & Oldhams Job characteristics Model can be used to redesign jobs to engage motivation; studied how and why goals setting works & looked at ways to use pay as a motivator
  • Next time we begin our study of groups in the organization looking at how they function and the role of cohesiveness