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Ginseng. Ryan Butterworth Andrew Gordon Avis Kusi. Classification. Family: Araliaceae Genus: Panax Panax ginseng (Asian) and Panax quinquefolius L. (American) Panax, derived from Greek Panakos, a “panacea”, or a “cure-all”. Etymology. “Ginseng” said to mean “wonder of the world”

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ginseng

Ginseng

Ryan Butterworth

Andrew Gordon

Avis Kusi

classification
Classification
  • Family: Araliaceae
  • Genus: Panax
    • Panax ginseng (Asian) and Panax quinquefolius L. (American)
    • Panax, derived from Greek Panakos, a “panacea”, or a “cure-all”
etymology
Etymology
  • “Ginseng” said to mean “wonder of the world”
  • Roots referred to as Jin-chen by Chinese, meaning “in the image of a man”
    • American Indian name, garantoquen, has same meaning
history
History
  • Prominent usage in ancient China, Manchuria and other parts of eastern Asia for centuries
  • Originally thought to be confined to Chinese Tartary, but known to be native of North America
    • Area of Mongol rule in 13th and 14th centuries
  • Introduced into Europe (Paris) in 1704
  • England in 1740
history8
History
  • Held in high esteem by natives of China
    • Necessity in all of the best prescriptions
    • Remedy for fatigue and infirmities of old age
  • Only the Emperor had the right to collect the roots in China
  • Roots chewed by sick to recover health and by healthy to increase vitality
    • Said to remove both mental and physical fatigue, to cure pulmonary complaints, dissolve tumors and prolong life
history9
History
  • Chinese demand for root became so great that they began to import from Canada
    • Jesuits of Canada in 1718
    • First shipment from North America to Canton yielded enormous profits
  • 1748, roots sold at a dollar/pound in America and nearly 5x in China
  • Chinese and American export and trade of roots is still prominent
history10
History
  • Preservation of cultivation and the natural supply
    • Canada, fine imposed for collecting between January and September 1st
  • Native Americans collect root only after maturity of fruit, and bend the stem down before digging the root, thus providing for its propagation
    • Assert that large numbers of seeds will germinate, thus allowing for increase in collection area
history11
History
  • 1876, 550,624 lb. were exported at avg. price of $1.17/pound
    • Amount available for export has steadily decreased and price has increased in proportion
  • 1912, export was only 155,308 lb. at an avg price of $7.20/pound
cultivation and harvest
Cultivation and Harvest
  • Requires a loose, rich soil, with a heavy mulch of leaves and about 80% shade for optimal growth
  • Difficult to grow in U.S.
    • Done mostly in greenhouses
  • Propagation by cutting of the roots is the most successful method
    • Cuttings placed in sand, under a handglass
  • Seeds, obtained abroad, are sown in pots in early spring require gentle heat
cultivation and harvest13
Cultivation and Harvest
  • When plants are a few inches high, transplanted into beds
    • Require good, warm soil, but much shade
  • To grow on a commercial basis is not feasible in U.S.
  • Root collected in autumn
    • Retains shape after drying
plant structure
Plant Structure
  • Fleshy, somewhat elastic and flexible
  • Firm solid consistence if collected at proper time and properly cured
  • Bark is very thick, yellowish-white, radially striated in old roots and contains brownish-red cells
  • Wood is strongly and coarsely radiate, with yellowish wood wedges and whitish rays
  • Roots valued for their large size and light color, plumpness and fine consistence and natural form
asian ginseng
Asian Ginseng
  • Panax ginseng, L.
  • Grows wild in Northern Manchuria and has been harvested there for thousands of years
  • Prized in the Orient for curative properties
  • Early emperors considered it a panacea to be ingested or used in lotions and soaps
  • Older roots may be as old as an entire century
    • Longevity said to be transferred from root to the person who consumes them
american ginseng
American Ginseng
  • Panax quinquefolius, L.
  • Perennial herb native to deciduous forests of the eastern U.S.
  • Over-harvested in the mid-1970s and subsequently defined as an endangered species
  • Currently, 18 states issue licenses to export
  • One of the earliest marketable herbs harvested in this country
medicinal uses uses in alternative medicine
Medicinal Uses/ Uses in Alternative Medicine
  • History of ginseng in alternative medicine goes back over 5,000 years.
  • It has been used as an adaptogen, demulcent, pancea, sedative, stimulant, cardiotonic, & stomachic.
  • Used to cope with mental & emotional stress
  • Used to relieve heat, cold, stress, fatigue and even hunger.
  • Supposeably increases mental & physical performance.
other effects of ginseng on body
Other effects of Ginseng on Body
  • Stimulates & relaxes nervous system esp. medulla centers
  • Increases secretion of hormones
  • Improves stamina
  • Lowers blood sugar and blood cholesterol levels
  • Increases resistance to disease
  • Stimulates endocrine activity in the body
  • Promotes slight increase in metabolic activity by relaxing heart and artery movements
chemical constituents
Chemical Constituents
  • Major components include:
    • Triterpenoid saponins
    • Ginsenosides (about 29 identified)
    • Acetylenic compounds
    • Panaxans
    • Sesquiterpenes
ginsenoside structure
Ginsenoside Structure

Ginsenoside Rg2

Chemical Structure

C42H72O13

“Ginsenosides are active ingredients isolated from the oriental herb, ginseng. They are steroidal saponins. Many ginsenosides have been found to have anticancer properties against tumor cell lines and tumor growth.  Others have been shown to have CNS effects ranging from neurons from ischemic damage to preventing scopolamine-induced memory deficits.” 

- All information on this slide courtesy of

www.axxora.com

over the counter products that contain panax ginseng
Over-the-counter products that contain Panax Ginseng
  • Celestial Seasonings Ginseng
  • Centrum Herbals Ginseng
  • Korean Ginseng Extract from Nature’s Way
  • Nature Made’s Chinese Red Panax Ginseng
  • Pharmaton’s Ginsana
  • PhytoPharmica’s Ginseng Phytosome

*Don’t take Ginseng with coffee or caffeinated beverages as it will accelerate the caffeine effects on the body and can cause diarrhea

economics of ginseng
Economics of Ginseng
  • In the United States sales of Ginseng reach nearly 100 million dollars
  • Ginseng growers typically invest $20,000/acre and 600hrs of labor annually and get no return until the third or fourth year
  • An average crop might net $30,000/ acre
  • Prices for dried roots range from $20 to $45/Ib, and prices for seeds range from $50 to $100/Ib
  • Panax is not official in the British Pharmacopoeia, and it was dismissed from the United States Pharmacopoeia at a late revision. It is cultivated almost entirely for export to China.
ginseng has been used to
Ginseng has been used to:
  • Treat erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation
  • Help the body resist infections
  • Lower cholesterol in the blood
  • Lower blood sugar in diabetics
  • Improve thinking and memory
  • Increase strength and endurance
  • Reduce cancer risk
  • Reduce stress and anxiety
  • Treat mild depression
  • Relieve fatigue
  • Remove excess water from the body
ginseng should not be taken if you have
Ginseng should not be taken if you have:
  • A bleeding disorder
  • Breast, uterine, or ovarian cancer
  • Endometriosis
  • Had an organ transport
  • Heart problems
  • Low or uncontrolled blood pressure
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Schizophrenia
  • Uterine fibroids
clinical data
Clinical Data
  • In the journal article entitled Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosylpyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial
  • The results of this study showed that cold symptoms and the number of days the cold lasted were decreased when subjects took ginseng
clinical data continued
Clinical Data continued…
  • In an article from the Journal of Korean Medicine, they conducted a study to see what affect Ginseng had on Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) in mice.
  • ACF are precursor lesions for colon cancer dectection.
  • This study showed that mice that were given Ginseng had fewer ACF then mice that were not given Ginseng
possible side effects
Possible Side Effects
  • Severe rash
  • Yellowing of the skin or eyes
  • Dark urine
  • Unusual tiredness
  • Nosebleeds
  • Headache
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Diarrhea
  • Menstrual problems
  • Breast pain
  • Increased heart rate
  • Dizziness
  • Mood changes
possible drug interactions
Possible Drug Interactions
  • Blood thinning medicines
  • Caffeine and stimulants such as pseudoephedrine
  • Diabetes medicines
  • Medicines used to suppress the immune system
  • Nonsteroidal anti-flammatory drugs
  • MAO inhibitor antidepressants
  • Herbal remedies with blood thinning effects
  • Furosemide (Lasix)
references
References
  • Wargovich, Michael J. 2001. Colon Cancer Chemoprevention With Ginseng and Other Botanicals. Journal of Korean Medicine. Vol 16.
  • Kiefer, David. 2003. Panax Ginseng. American Family Physician. Vol. 68(8).
  • Predy, Gerald N, Vinti Goel, Ray Lovlin, Allan Donner, Larry Stitt, and Tapan K. Basu. 2005. Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Vol. 173(9).
  • Harrison, H.C. Lasted updated in 2000. Ginseng. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/ginseng.html
  • Grieve, M. Last updated in 2006. Ginseng. http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/ginsen15.html