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food industry in georgia risks and threats
Food Industry in Georgia

Risks and Threats


Terminal Learning Objective:

The participant will identify what agroterrorism means to the food industry, identify legislation and measures in place to help protect the food supply, and increase their knowledge of the process of risk assessment, risk management and risk communication.

Enabling Learning Objectives:

1.1 Identify what agroterrorism means to the food industry.

1.2 Discuss legislation and become familiar with measures in place to help protect the food supply.

1.3 Identify steps in process of risk assessment, risk management and risk communication

Slide 1-A

objectives for participants
Objectives for Participants:
  • To identify what agroterrorism means to the food industry
  • To discuss legislation and become familiar with measures in place to help protect the food supply
  • To understand theprocess of risk assessment, risk management and risk communication

Slide 2

  • “Agroterrorism” as it applies to the food processing industry is the intentional sabotage of a food product during processing, storage, or distribution with the intent to cause physical harm to the consumer, as well as economic harm to the production sector and the economy in general.

Slide 3

food industry risks
Food Industry Risks
  • “For the life of me, I cannot understand why the terrorists have not attacked our food supply because it is so easy to do. I worry every single night about it.” (Tommy Thompson)
  • Sabotage during food production, processing, transportation and importation is considered to be relatively easy.
  • A potential terrorist might not have to actually do anything…just say that they did… to have an impact on the efficiency of the system.

Slide 4

bioterrorism law of 2002
Bioterrorism Law of 2002
  • Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002
  • Contained four major provisions:
    • Registration of food facilities
    • Prior notice of imports
    • Records of source and distribution of products
    • Authority for detention of suspect products

Slide 5

food processing plant registration
Food Processing Plant Registration
  • Plant Registration Includes:
    • Up to date listing of all facilities
    • Name of executives
    • Address of corporate office
    • Product brand names
    • National origin of food ingredients
    • Annual production levels and related data

Slide 6

prior notice of imports
Prior Notice of Imports
  • Include:
    • Product
    • Quantity
    • Country of origin
    • Producer data
  • Can refuse entry for any shipment for which prior notice has not been submitted

Slide 7

  • Document the source of all inputs
  • Document the immediate destination of all products
  • Allow for tracing of a product all the way through the system

Slide 8

  • Records must be retained by producer for at least 2 years
  • Must be provided to FDA upon request when there is a reasonable belief that a threat exists
  • Excludes farms, restaurants, recipes or formulas, financial and sales data

Slide 9

administrative detention
Administrative Detention
  • Provides for the detention of any product believed to pose a potential risk
  • May not exceed 30 days
  • Can hold at a port of entry for up to 24 hours
  • Contains an appeal mechanism

Slide 10


Prior notification of imports

Administrative detention

Registration of plants

Better records


Slide 11

farms and animals nais
Farms and Animals: NAIS
  • National Animal Identification System (NAIS) (
    • All food animals and animal premises will have unique ID by 2008
    • Tracking of all food animal movements possible by 2009
  • Major Provisions:
    • Each animal premise will have a 7 character PIN
    • Animals will be identified individually or by group by a 15 character AIN or a 13 character GIN
    • 48 hour trace-back to place of animal origin anywhere in food chain

Slide 12

premise id
Premise ID
  • Data to be maintained by production unit in connection with premise ID:
    • Premises ID Number
    • Name of Owner or Appropriate Contact Person
    • Street Address City State Zip/Postal Code
    • Contact Phone Number
    • Operation Type (e.g., production unit, exhibition, abattoir, etc.)
    • Date Activated
    • Date Retired (e.g., operation is sold, operation is no longer maintaining livestock)
    • Reason Retired

Slide 13

animal group id
Animal/Group ID
  • Data to be maintained by production unit or allied animal industry in connection with animal/group ID:
    • Animal Identification Number, AIN, or Group/Lot Identification Number, GIN
    • Premises Identification Number, PIN, of the location where the event takes place
    • Date of the event
    • Event type (movement in, movement out, sighting of an animal at a location, termination of the animal, etc.)

Slide 14

producer s responsibility
Producer’s Responsibility
  • Each producer must develop a program to identify and minimize the potential for intentional product contamination within their facility.
  • Need to demonstrate reasonable diligence to avoid potential liability in the event of a security breach and harm to consumers.

Slide 15

  • Impossible to completely eliminate all risks, but can manage them.
    • Deterrence and prevention
    • Detection and mitigation of the impact in the event of an occurrence
  • Focus on the “3 P’s” – Plant, Personnel, and Procedures

Slide 16

the 1 st p the plant production facility
The 1st “P” – The Plant/Production Facility
  • Physical security
    • Fences, gates, security guards, locks,

ID badges, security cameras, etc.

  • Laboratory safety
    • Security of biohazards, pathogens, toxins
  • Storage and use of poisonous and toxic chemicals (for example, cleaning and sanitizing agents, pesticides)

Slide 17

the 2 nd p personnel
The 2nd “P” - Personnel
  • Screening (pre-hiring, at hiring, post-hiring)
  • Daily work assignments
  • Identification
  • Restricted access
  • Training in food security/defense procedures
  • Unusual behavior
  • Staff health
  • Visitors and the public

Slide 18

the 3 rd p procedures
The 3rd “P” - Procedures
  • Preparing for the possibility of tampering or other malicious, criminal, or terrorist actions
  • Visitor policy and procedures
  • Traceability, record keeping, and reporting
  • Recall strategy
  • Investigation of suspicious activity
  • Continual evaluation programs

Slide 19

keys to success
Keys to Success
  • Training and awareness
  • Predetermined plans for evacuation, crisis management, etc.
  • Lines of communication and reporting
  • Processes and systems designed with agroterrorism risks in mind

Slide 20

risk analysis
Risk Analysis
  • The foundation of risk analysis:
    • Risk Assessment
    • Risk Management
    • Risk Communication

Slide 21

risk assessment
Risk Assessment
  • Risk Assessment: evaluation of the probability and costs of an adverse outcome
    • Introduction of a foreign animal disease
    • Receipt of a load of contaminated feed
    • Receipt of a food ingredient maintained at an improper temperature

Slide 22

risk assessment sample hazard analysis
Risk Assessment – Sample Hazard Analysis

Hazard Analysis in Broiler Processing Plant

Adverse Outcomes

Outcome Severity

Foodborne bacteria

Foodborne Outbreak

Chemical contam.

Hazard Analysis

Product Recall

Physical contam.

In-plant loss of product

Hazard Analysis in a Livestock Production Facility

Adverse Outcomes

Outcome Severity


Quarantine and Depopulation

Loss of animal group


Hazard Analysis

Environmental contamination


Slide 23

risk assessment25
Risk Assessment

HACCP: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points

Assessing the hazards:

What are the vulnerabilities?

Animal movement: biosecurity

Traffic flow: physical security

Characterize the vulnerability

Severity of outcome

Magnitude of risk

Frequency of vulnerability

Slide 24

risk management
Risk Management

Target Critical Control Points


Based upon:

Risk, Severity, Likelihood,

Costs, Feasibility

Slide 25

risk communication
Risk Communication
  • No plan is effective if not communicated
    • Write down management plan
      • Outcome assessment
      • Re-evaluation timeline
    • Get input from employees and colleagues
    • Give specific directions necessary for implementing risk management plan

Slide 26

for the cynics
For the Cynics
  • “I can’t carry enough on my boots to infect a farm.”
    • Avian influenza in Canada
    • Classical swine fever in Africa

Slide 27

for more information
For More Information:


Annex 03: Biosecurity guidelines for the farmer or producer

Annex 04: Routine biosecurity protocols for visiting farms and other livestock concentration points

Slide 28

it pays to remember
It Pays To Remember…

The 3 P’s:

  • Production facilities/plants
  • Personnel
  • Procedures

Slide 30

reference list for more information
Reference List For More Information:

See Your Textbooks –

  • Protecting Georgia’s Agriculture and Food – Agrosecurity. Chapter 2.
  • Protecting America’s Agriculture and Food – Agrosecurity. Chapter 3.

Slide 31