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Figure 12-2 Page 225 Passenger pigeon Dusky seaside sparrow Great auk Dodo Aepyornis (Madagascar) Figure 12-3a Page 226 Kirtland's warbler White top pitcher plant Grizzly bear (threatened) Arabian oryx (Middle East) African elephant (Africa) Mojave desert tortoise (threatened)

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figure 12 2 page 225
Figure 12-2Page 225

Passenger pigeon

Dusky seaside sparrow

Great auk

Dodo

Aepyornis

(Madagascar)

figure 12 3a page 226
Figure 12-3aPage 226

Kirtland's warbler

White top pitcher plant

Grizzly bear

(threatened)

Arabian oryx

(Middle East)

African elephant

(Africa)

Mojave desert tortoise (threatened)

Swallowtail butterfly

Humpback chub

Golden lion tamarin (Brazil)

Siberian tiger

(Siberia)

figure 12 3b page 226
Figure 12-3b Page 226

West Virginia

spring salamander

Whooping crane

Knowlton cactus

Giant panda

(China)

Blue whale

Pine barrens

tree frog (male)

Swamp pink

Hawksbill sea turtle

El Segundo blue butterfly

Mountain gorilla

(Africa)

figure 12 3c page 227
Figure 12-3c Page 227

Florida manatee

Northern spotted owl (threatened)

Bannerman's turaco (Africa)

Gray wolf

Florida panther

Devil's hole pupfish

Black-footed ferret

Snow leopard

(Central Asia)

Utah prairie dog

(threatened)

Symphonia

(Madagascar)

California condor

Black lace cactus

Oahu tree snail

Ghost bat

(Australia)

Black rhinoceros

(Africa)

figure 12 4 page 228
Figure 12-4Page 228

Characteristic

Examples

Low reproductive rate

(K-strategist)

Blue whale, giant panda,

rhinoceros

Specialized niche

Blue whale, giant panda,

Everglades kite

Narrow distribution

Many island species,

elephant seal, desert pupfish

Bengal tiger, bald eagle,

grizzly bear

Feeds at high trophic

level

Fixed migratory patterns

Blue whale, whooping crane,

sea turtles

Rare

Many island species,

African violet, some orchids

Commercially valuable

Snow leopard, tiger,

elephant, rhinoceros,

rare plants and birds

Large territories

California condor, grizzly

bear, Florida panther

slide6

34% (51% of freshwater species)

Fish

24%

Mammals

20%

Reptiles

14%

Plants

12%

Birds

Figure 12-5Page 228

slide7

Habitat

loss

Pollution

Overfishing

Habitat degradation

and fragmentation

Commercial

hunting and poaching

Climate change

Sale of exotic pets

and decorative plants

Introducing

nonnative species

Predator and pest control

Secondary Causes

  • Population growth
  • Rising resource use
  • No environmental
  • accounting
  • Poverty

Basic Causes

Figure 12-6Page 231

figure 12 7a page 232
Figure 12-7aPage 232

Range 100 years ago

Range today

(about 2,300 left)

Indian Tiger

figure 12 7b page 232
Figure 12-7bPage 232

Range in 1700

Range today

(about 2,400 left)

Black Rhino

figure 12 7c page 232
Figure 12-7cPage 232

Probable range 1600

Range today

(300,000 left)

African Elephant

figure 12 7d page 232
Figure 12-7dPage 232

Former range

Range today

(34,000–54,000 left)

Asian or Indian Elephant

figure 12 8 page 233
Figure 12-8Page 233

Cerulean warbler

Sprague’s pipit

Bichnell’s thrush

Blacked-capped vireo

Golden-cheeked

warbler

Florida scrub jay

California gnatcatcher

Kirtland’s warbler

Henslow’s sparrow

Bachman’s warbler

animation
Animation

Habitat loss and fragmentation interaction.

Click to view animation.

figure 12 9a page 235
Figure 12-9aPage 235

Purple looselife

European starling

African honeybee

(“Killer bee”)

Nutria

Salt cedar

(Tamarisk)

Marine toad

Water hyacinth

Japanese beetle

Hydrilla

European wild boar

(Feral pig)

Deliberately introduced Species

figure 12 9b page 235
Figure 12-9b Page 235

Sea lamprey

(attached to lake trout)

Argentina fire ant

Brown tree snake

Eurasian muffle

Common pigeon

(Rock dove)

Formosan termite

Zebra mussel

Asian long-horned

beetle

Asian tiger mosquito

Gypsy moth larvae

Accidentally introduced Species

figure 12 12 page 238
Figure 12-12Page 238

Characteristics of

Successful

Invader Species

Characteristics of

Ecosystems Vulnerable

to Invader Species

  • High reproductive rate, short generation time (r-selected species)
  • Pioneer species
  • Long lived
  • High dispersal rate
  • Release growth- inhibiting chemicals into soil
  • Generalists
  • High genetic variability
  • Similar climate to habitat of invader
  • Absence of predators on invading species
  • Early successional systems
  • Low diversity of native species
  • Absence of fire
  • Disturbed by human activities
figure 12 14 page 242
Figure 12-14Page 242

2

4

3

5

Top Six Hot Spots

6

1 Hawaii

2 San Francisco Bay area

3 Southern Appalachians

4 Death Valley

5 Southern California

6 Florida Panhandle

Concentration of rare species

1

Low

Moderate

High

figure 12 15 page 246
Figure 12-15Page 246

North American-South

American flyways

European-African

flyways

Asian flyways

slide21

What Can You Do?

Protecting Species

  • Do not buy furs, ivory products, and other materials made from endangered or threatened animal species.
  • Do not buy wood and paper products produced by cutting remaining old-growth forests in the tropics.
  • Do not buy birds, snakes, turtles, tropical fish, and other animals that are taken from the wild.
  • Do not buy orchids, cacti, and other plants that are taken from the wild.

Figure 12-16Page 249

animation22
Animation

Humans affect biodiversity interaction.

Click to view animation.

animation23
Animation

Habitat loss and fragmentation interaction.

Click to view animation.