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Dissemination and Adoption of Precision Agriculture. Jenn Scott. Overview. Types of Technology available and in use Adoption Trends Dissemination of information Education of farmers and the Recommended strategies. Technology Available and in Use (4). GPS and DGPS GIS

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Presentation Transcript
overview
Overview
  • Types of Technology available and in use
  • Adoption Trends
  • Dissemination of information
  • Education of farmers and the Recommended strategies
technology available and in use 4
Technology Availableand in Use (4)
  • GPS and DGPS
  • GIS
  • Variable Rate Sensors and applicators
  • Sensors (field, soil, and crop)
  • Guidance Systems
  • Remote Sensing
    • Arial mapping/ satellite imagery
    • Grid soil sampling
    • Soil mapping
    • Yield monitors
slide4
1998 nationwide survey of over 8,400 farmers indicated that:
    • 70% were not aware of PA technologies
    • 2% were aware but not adopters
    • <5% had adopted some aspect of PA (6)
stages of adoption
Stages of Adoption
  • Awareness
  • Interest
  • Evaluation
  • Trial
  • Adoption
  • Awareness and the formation of attitudes is influenced by ag producer’s socio-economic characteristics.
who is using pa 3
Who is using PA? (3)
  • Corn and Soybean farmers have been the most rapid adopters of PA sensing tech.
  • Use of yield monitors in 1996
    • 30% corn in
    • 25% soybeans
    • 10% wheat
  • Use of geo-referenced soil maps By 2000
    • over 10% of cotton and wheat
    • 17% of soybeans
    • >20% of corn
  • Purdue found that 60% of studies done indicated a positive return for any given PA technology, 10% negative, and 30% mixed.
in the corn belt 2
In The Corn Belt (2)
  • In 16 states, only 9% utilized some form of PA representing nearly 1/5th of the 1996 harvested acreage
    • 7% grid samples/maps
      • Of these: 70% used sampling/mapping on 64% of their acreage.
      • 60% sampling 2.5 acre grids w/ 43% every 4 yrs.
    • 4% applied fertilizer or lime with VRT
    • 6% yield monitors during harvest
    • 4% used yield monitor info to develop yield maps
composite of average adopting farmer
Composite of Average Adopting Farmer
  • Age
    • 70% of adopters were under age 50 (2)
  • Full-time farmers
    • 90% listed farming as their major occupation (2)
  • Technology Savvy
    • Using computerized record systems (2)
  • Educated
    • more education would enhance the ability of the farm operator to utilize these technologies.(1)
slide9
Experience
    • older farmers are less likely to invest to due shorter planning horizons (2)
  • Land Tenure
    • Land ownership is widely believed to encourage adoption of technologies. (6)
  • Farm Size
    • Lower unit cost by spreading their fixed investment in PA over more acres -1
  • Early adopters have different attributes than late or non adapters
    • Non adopters are very risk adverse.
farm characteristics
Farm Characteristics
  • Size was found to be positively associated with the adoption of PA technology.(1)
    • Due to substantial human and financial capital resources
    • Probability of having all acreage under PA was also greater.
    • Of the 9% of corn farmers using PA, they controlled 19% of the corn acreage, indication adoption has occurred primarily on the larger farms.
  • Large family farm, very large family farms, and non-family farms account for 61% of production. (8)
  • Over 50% of farms sales were >$250,000(2)
  • 18% grossed <$100,000 in 1996(2)
slide11
How do we educate farmers about their choices and about how to use the technology?
  • How do we get them to adopt PA technologies?
barriers to adoption 6
Barriers to Adoption (6)
  • Uncertainty in returns due to adoption
  • High fixed cost of investment and info acquisition
  • Lack of demonstrated effects on yield
  • Input use and environmental performance (5)
  • Lack of appropriate service centers and professionals(2)
benefits of pa
Benefits of PA
  • Make more informed management decisions
  • Improve input allocations
  • Be more efficient
  • Lower production costs
  • Improve Crop Yield / Increase profit margin.
  • Reduce chemical and fertilizer costs through more efficient application.
  • Reduce pollution.

(5)

dissemination of information 10
Dissemination of Information (10)
  • So far, info has been targeted towards the “early adopter” producers rather than main stream producers.
  • Only recently have they targeted advisors, crop consultants and dealers.
  • Oriented toward understanding concepts rather than functionality of equipment or software.
  • As PA progresses, the industry will have to produce a range of info for all skill levels.
methods of dissemination
Methods of Dissemination
  • Research Publications refereed journals
  • Newsletters
  • Extension Bulletins
  • Industry Guides
  • Internet
  • CD’s

(10)

teaching pa
Teaching PA
  • Teaching PA in one talk or hour lecture is impossible
  • Field Days
  • Conferences and Workshops
  • Internet and web-based classes
field days
Field Days
  • Allows for learning ways to practically apply technologies and management practices to individual situations.
  • Provides opportunity to become acquainted with what is available
  • Some hands-on access to tech: opportunity to try out field computers, DGPS equip, GPS software, guidance systems and other tech. w/o investing large amounts of money.
field days cont 12
Field Days, cont (12)
  • Connects growers who lack local experts in PA tech with people who can help answer questions and solve problems.
  • Must be carefully planned and organized
    • Multiple sessions for multiple areas
    • Try for smaller group sessions to allow max. learning and visibility.
conferences and workshops
Conferences and Workshops
  • Provide the opportunity to focus on PA for one to many days
  • Can provide hands on exercises
  • PA tech isn’t necessarily crop specific, so can use broad based sessions
  • WPAC
  • Assiniboine CC in Manitoba
  • U of N- Lincoln

(9)

internet and web based classes
Internet and Web-based Classes
  • NCES reports: distance ed. is a more common feature at many post-secondary institutions.
  • Is popular and will be more readily available in the future
  • Ag field has been among the slowest to adopt dist. ed.
  • With the rapid change of info in PA, internet provides the best place for information due to the ability to revise and update material.

(11)

problems with internet
Problems with Internet
  • Majority of ag producers lack internet access
  • Quality and level of service in rural areas can often be poor
  • Users may not be able to take advantage of all online tools despite having “access”
  • Many with internet access don’t have computers that are new enough or fast enough for many programs.
natural learning process for pa
Natural Learning Process for PA
  • Learning and understanding the concept of spatial data management, including the importance and value of spatial data.
  • Learning the proper use of sensors makes it possible to obtain intensive sampling of quality info inexpensively.
  • Learning to use a computer and software for mapping. (GIS)

(13)

slide24
4. Using info to make improved crop production decisions through assessment of yield variation and determining potential causes.
  • Summarize and interpret data to develop site-specific management plans.
  • Strategic sampling and on-farm trials

(13)

future of pa adoption
Future of PA Adoption
  • Motivation to adopt may come from:
  • Environmental regulations
    • Much of the US corn is grown on or near environmentally sensitive lands which require more intensive management. (aquifers, rivers, lakes, wetlands, etc)
  • Public concern of excessive use of agro chemicals
  • And economic gain from reduced inputs and improved farm management efficiency
references
References
  • Frenandez-Cornejo,J., Daberkow, S. McBride, W.D. Decomposing the size effect on the adoption of innovations. AgBioForum, 4,2: 124-136.
  • Daberkow, S., McBride, W.D. Adoption rate of Site Specific Crop Management Technologies Among US Corn Growers. Retrieved from internet on April 0, 2004 from: www.eomonline.com/modernagsite/archives/daberkow.html
  • Daberkow, S. Fernandez-Cornejo, J., Padgett, M. Precision Agriculture Adoption Continues to Grow. Agricultural Outlook. November 2002.
  • Zhang, N., Wang, M., Wang, N. Precision Agriculture-a world overview. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 36,2:125-139.
  • Batte, M.T, Arholt, M.W. Precision Farming Adoption and Use in Ohio: case studies of six leading edge adopters. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 38,2 : 124-139.
  • Daberkow, S., McBride, W.D. Farm and Operator Characteristics Affecting the Awareness and Adoption of Precision Agriculture Technologies in the US. Precision Agriculture, 4, 163-177, 2003.
  • www.usda.gov/new/pubs/fbook00/factbook2000.pdf
  • Fiez, T. Providing Precision Farming Education through Conferences and Workshops. Precision Agriculture, 3, 353-358. 2002
references27
References
  • Ferguson, R. B. Educational Resources for Precision Agriculture. Precision Agriculture, 3, 359-371, 2002
  • Pocknee, S. Kvien, C. Web Based Educational Programs In Precision Agriculture. Precision Agriculture, 3, 327-340, 2002.
  • Heiniger, R.W., Havlin, J.L., Kvien, C. Knowles, T. Seeing is Believing: the Role of Field Days and Tours in Precision Agriculture Education. Precision Agriculture, 3, 309-218, 2002.
  • Kitchen, N. R., Snyder, C.J., Franzen, D.W., Wiebold, W.J. Educational Needs of Precision Agriculture. Precision Agriculture, 3, 341-351, 2002.