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DEFINITION OF A GROUP TWO OR MORE PERSONS FREQUENT INTERACTION COMMON OBJECTIVES SHARED NORMS SHARED PERCEPTION OF MEMBERSHIP “Two or more persons who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goal.” EFFECTIVE GROUPS SATISFACTION & COMMITMENT FOR EACH MEMBER

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definition of a group
DEFINITION OF A GROUP
  • TWO OR MORE PERSONS
  • FREQUENT INTERACTION
  • COMMON OBJECTIVES
  • SHARED NORMS
  • SHARED PERCEPTION OF MEMBERSHIP

“Two or more persons who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goal.”

EFFECTIVE GROUPS

  • SATISFACTION & COMMITMENT FOR EACH MEMBER
  • ACCOMPLISH THE TASK (PRODUCTIVE OUTPUT)

Homans Classification Scheme

Activities, Interactions, Sentiments

why do people join groups
WHY DO PEOPLE JOIN GROUPS?
  • JOB ASSIGNMENT (the job requires it)
  • ATTRACTED TO MEMBERS (you like the people)
  • ENJOY GROUP ACTIVITIES (the group does “fun” stuff)
  • BELIEVE IN GROUP GOALS (the “mission” of the group)
  • SATISFY THE NEED FOR AFFILIATION (you’re lonely)
  • USE GROUP AS A MEANS TO SOME END (instrumental)
types of groups
TYPES OF GROUPS

FORMAL GROUPS (Work Assignments)

TASK FORCE = temporary group; TEAM = permanent group

MANAGEMENT TEAM (Vertical)

COMMAND GROUP -- HIERARCHY

FUNCTIONAL WORK TEAM (Horizontal)

PRODUCT OR SERVICE – SELF-DIRECTED

SPECIAL PURPOSE GROUPS (Problem-solving & Representation)

TASK FORCE -- NEED EXPERTISE

COMMITTEE -- NEED REPRESENTATION

INFORMAL GROUPS (Join Voluntary)

FRIENDSHIP (People)

INTEREST (Activities)

group properties which affect effectiveness
GROUP PROPERTIES WHICH AFFECTEFFECTIVENESS
  • MEMBER COMPOSITION
  • SIZE
  • ROLES
  • COHESION
  • NORMS
  • STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
slide5
MEMBER COMPOSITION
  • Similarity (Homogeneity)

Bonds Quickly

Acts Quickly

  • Diversity (Heterogeneity)

More Contentious (Less Cohesive)

More Deliberate (slow)

More Status Differences

SIZE OF GROUP

  • Few Members

More Interaction

Everyone Participates

  • Many Members

A “Leader” Emerges

A “Silent” Minority

emergent vertical roles
EMERGENT VERTICAL ROLES
  • LEADER
  • REGULAR MEMBER
  • DEVIATE
  • ISOLATE
emergent horizontal roles
EMERGENT HORIZONTAL ROLES

TASK-ORIENTED ROLESRELATIONS-ORIENTED ROLES

IDEA INITIATOR HARMONIZER / SMOOTHER

INFORMATION SEEKER COMPROMISER

INFORMATION PROVIDER STANDARD MONITOR

PROBLEM CLARIFIER GATEKEEPER

CONSENSUS TESTER SUPPORTER

EVALUATOR HUMORIST

SUMMARIZER “COOKIE PERSON”

SELF-ORIENTED ROLES

WET BLANKET / BLOCKER

RECOGNITION SEEKER

BRAGGER

DOMINATOR

GROUP CLOWN

FIGHT PICKER

cohesiveness
COHESIVENESS

CAUSES

MEMBER SIMILARITY (HOMOGENEITY)

GROUP SIZE

ISOLATION

COMPETITION / EXTERNAL THREAT

REWARD SYSTEM

DEPENDENCE PATTERN

INTERACTION AND PARTICIPATION

ENTRANCE STANDARDS (EXCLUSIVITY)

CONSEQUENCES

MEMBER SATISFACTION

PERFORMANCE

SUBOPTIMIZATION

FEELING OF “WE-NESS”

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE

RESPONSIBLE ACTIVITY

manipulating cohesion
MANIPULATING COHESION

TO INCREASE GROUP COHESION

INCREASE MEMBER HOMOGENEITY (Similarity)

INCREASE OPPORTUNITIES FOR INTERACTION AMONG MEMBERS

DECREASE GROUP SIZE

INTRODUCE COMPETITION WITH OTHER GROUPS

ISOLATE FROM OTHER GROUPS

ALLOCATE REWARDS TO THE GROUP

CREATE MORE TASK COMPLEXITY & AMBIGUITY

DECREASE GROUP COHESION

INDUCE DISAGREEMENT OVER OBJECTIVES

INCREASE MEMBER HETEROGENEITY (Diversity)

RESTRICT INTERACTION AMONG MEMBERS

INCREASE GROUP SIZE

INTRODUCE A NEW DOMINATING MEMBER TO THE GROUP

ALLOCATE REWARDS TO INDIVIDUALS WITHIN THE GROUP

REMOVE ISOLATION BARRIERS

TRANSFER MEMBERS (Break up the old gang)

norms
NORMS
  • SUMMARIZE & SIMPLIFY GROUP EXPECTATIONS
  • APPLY ONLY TO OVERT BEHAVIOR
  • ONLY DEVELOP FOR “IMPORTANT” GROUP BEHAVIORS
  • DEVELOP GRADUALLY
  • DO NOT APPLY EQUALLY TO EVERYONE WITHIN THE GROUP

REASONS NORMS FORM

TO HELP THE GROUP SURVIVE

TO INCREASE THE PREDICTABILITY OF GROUP MEMBER BEHAVIOR

TO REDUCE EMBARRASSING INTERPERSONAL PROBLEMS FOR MEMBERS

TO ENCOURAGE MEMBERS TO EXPRESS THE CENTRAL VALUES OF THE GROUP IN A PUBLIC WAY

TO SEND A SIGNAL TO OUTSIDERS THAT “WE’RE A STRONG GROUP

types of norms
TYPES OF NORMS

PERFORMANCE NORMS

HOW HARD MEMBERS SHOULD WORK

HOW TO DO THE JOB

EXPECTED LEVEL OF OUTPUT

APPROPRIATE LEVELS OF TARDINESS

APPEARANCE NORMS

APPROPRIATE DRESS WHEN TOGETHER

LOYALTY TO THE WORK GROUP

WHEN TO LOOK BUSY

WHEN IT’S OK TO GOOF OFF

SOCIAL INTERACTION NORMS

WHO CAN WE HANG OUT AND SOCIALIZE WITH ON-THE JOB?

WHO CAN WE BE FRIENDS WITH, BOTH ON AND OFF THE JOB?

REGULATES SOCIAL INTERACTIONS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE THE GROUP

RESOURCE ALLOCATION NORMS

WHO SHOULD BE ASSIGNED TO EACH JOB?

WHO SHOULD BE THE NEXT TO RECEIVE NEW TOOLS OR EQUIPMENT?

HOW MUCH OF A PAY INCREASE SHOULD EACH MEMBER GET?

WHO SHOULD RECEIVE THE NEXT PROMOTION?

norm strength jackson 65
NORM STRENGTHJACKSON (65)

INTENSITY AND CRYSTALLIZATION AFFECT NORM STRENGTH

HIGH - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

HIGH STRONG

CONFLICT ENFORCED

NORMS

INTENSITY- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

NORMLESS VACUOUS

CONSENSUS

LOW - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

LOW HIGH

CRYSTALLIZATION

INTENSITY = WIDE EMOPTIONAL SWINGS IN FEELING, PEOPLE GET UPSET WHEN NORM IS VIOLATED

CRYSTALLIZATION = THERE IS STRONG AGREEMENT ABOUT WHAT IS & IS NOT APPROPRIATE

how cohesiveness and performance norms interact
HOW COHESIVENESS AND PERFORMANCE NORMS INTERACT

HIGH - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

MODERATE HIGH

PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE

PERFORMANCE- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

NORMS

LOW LOWEST

PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE

LOW - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

LOW HIGH

COHESIVENESS

COHESIVENESS -- DO THE TEAM MEMBERS ENCOURAGE EACH OTHER TO WORK TOGETHER?

PERFORMANCE NORMS -- DO THE TEAM MEMBERS ALL WANT TO PERFORM AT A HIGH LEVEL?

stages of group development
STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT

TRADITIONAL VIEW (No pressing time pressures)

FORMING

INTRODUCTIONS, ORIENTATION AND DISCOVERY

STORMING

CONFLICT, COMPETITION FOR ROLES, GOAL DISPUTES

NORMING

COHESION ESTABLISHED, PROCEDURES, NORMS FORM

PERFORMING

COOPERATION & PARTICIPATION, TASKS ACCOMPLISHED

ADJOURNING

GROUP CELEBRATES ITS SUCCESSES, THEN DISBANDS

PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL (Deadlines imposed)

INITIAL ARRANGEMENTS & ASSIGNMENTS

MIDPOINT “REVOLUTION” (Panic Attack!)

FOCUSED FINISH (Final burst of energy)

three views of conflict
THREE VIEWS OF CONFLICT

TRADITIONAL VIEW

Conflict is dysfunctional, destructive and irrational

Usually caused by poor communication, a lack of trust, or a failure to be responsible to the needs of others.

STAMP IT OUT!

“HUMAN RELATIONS” VIEW

Conflict is natural in groups and organizations

It may even be beneficial on occasion. Learn to live with it.

TOLERATE IT!

INTERACTIONIST VIEW

Without conflict, we become static and non-responsive

Conflict keeps us viable and creative, but there are two kinds of conflict:

FUNCTIONAL and DYSFUNCTIONAL.

Functional conflict improves long-term group performance.

ENCOURAGE IT!

conflict intensity continuum
CONFLICT INTENSITY CONTINUUM
  • MINOR DISAGREEMENTS, MISUNDERSTANDINGS
  • OVERT QUESTIONING OR CHALLENGING OTHERS
  • ASSERTIVE VERBAL ATTACKS
  • THREATS AND ULTIMATUMS
  • AGGRESSIVE PHYSICAL ATTACKS
  • OVERT EFFORTS TO DESTROY THE OTHER PARTY

AT WHAT POINT DOES THE CONFLICT BECOME DYSFUNCTIONAL?

HOW DO WE “DEFUSE” DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT?

conflict stimulation techniques some conflict is good
CONFLICT STIMULATION TECHNIQUES(SOME CONFLICT IS GOOD!)

INCREASE COMPETITION AMONG INDIVIDUALS AND TEAMS

Contests and incentives based on performance…we know the rules!

COMMUNICATE WITH LESS PRECISION

Send ambiguous messages and give very general instructions which will be open to differing interpretations of what to do, etc.

HIRE OR BRING IN OUTSIDERS

Add people who differ regarding their backgrounds, values and attitudes (increase heterogeneity)…we need some new ideas!

RESTRUCTURE THE ORGANIZATION…MAKE CHANGES

Realign work groups, alter the rules, etc…shake the place up!

ENCOURAGE DISSENT…APPOINT A DEVIL’S ADVOCATE

Sensitize the members that it’s ok to disagree or raise concerns. Designate a critic to purposely argue against the majority position.

controlling conflict learning how to live with conflict
CONTROLLING CONFLICT(LEARNING HOW TO LIVE WITH CONFLICT)

EXPAND THE RESOURCE BASE

Can we find more resources so we don’t have to fight over them?

Find ways to increase budgets, provide more space, etc.

SET SUPERORDINATE GOALS

Focus attention on higher-level objectives…the corporate goals that cannot be attained without cooperation.

IMPROVE THE COORDINATION OF INTERDEPENDENCIES

Develop better coordination and communication channels to bridge the gap between interdependent departments and groups. Consider liaison roles, task forces, and other integrating mechanisms.

MATCH PERSONALITIES & WORK HABITS OF EMPLOYEES

Don’t make incompatible personalities work together continuously. Consider a transfer for one or both of them to other units.

resolving and eliminating conflict conflict is bad get rid of it
RESOLVING AND ELIMINATING CONFLICT(CONFLICT IS BAD…GET RID OF IT)

AVOIDANCE OF CONFLICT

If I ignore it…maybe it will die down and go away! Separate the parties involved…give them time to cool off.

COMPROMISE

If our goals are incompatible, we must bargain with each other to resolve the conflict. Each party gives something up to reach an agreement (a “lose-lose” situation).

CONFRONT THE CONFLICT AND RESOLVE IT

Sit down and discuss the issues face-to-face in a mature fashion. Search for a “win-win” solution, or agree on how the conflict will be resolved (superior decision, arbitration, alternative dispute resolution, etc).

conflict resolution techniques
CONFLICT RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES

AVOIDANCE

Withdraw from or suppress conflict

SMOOTH OVER

Play down differences, emphasize common interests

COMPROMISE

Each party gives something up

AUTHORITATIVE COMMAND

Top management mandates a solution

ALTER STRUCTURAL VARIABLES

Redesign jobs, reassign tasks and personnel

TRAINING TO CHANGE ATTITUDES & BEHAVIORS

Raising sensitivity, learning to negotiate, etc.

PROBLEM-SOLVING MEETINGS

Face-to-face discussions to find a “win-win” solution

FOCUS ON SUPERORDINATE GOALS

A corporate goal that cannot be attained without cooperation

EXPAND SCARCE RESOURCES

Find ways to increase budgets, provide more space, etc.

conflict handling styles grid thomas 76
CONFLICT-HANDLING STYLES GRIDTHOMAS (76)

ASSERTIVE ---------------------------------------------------------

COMPETITIVE COLLABORATIVE

SATISFY OWN

CONCERNSCOMPROMISING

AVOIDANT ACCOMMODATIVE

UNASSERTIVE ---------------------------------------------------------

UNCOOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE

SATISFY THE

CONCERNS OF OTHERS

Is this a DISTRIBUTIVE (Zero-sum) game -- “How shall we split the pie?”

Or, is this an INTEGRATIVE (Proactive) game -- “How to create a larger pie?”

thomas conflict resolution strategies 1
THOMAS’ CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES - 1

AVOIDANT

NON-ATTENTION

PHYSICAL SEPARATION

LIMIT INTERACTION

Let people cool down and regain perspective

Issue is trivial, more important issues are pressing

Potential disruptions outweigh the benefits of resolution

There is no chance for you to satisfy your concerns

When others can resolve the conflict more effectively

ACCOMMODATIVE

APPEASEMENT – GIVE AN “OLIVE BRANCH”

SMOOTH OVER DIFFERENCES

“CAVE IN”

When harmony and stability are quite important

When the goals pursued are not critical to us

To build social credits (idiosyncratic) for later issues

When you find you were wrong, or to show you’re reasonable

To satisfy others and maintain their cooperation

thomas conflict resolution strategies 2
THOMAS’ CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES - 2

COMPETITIVE

USE OF FORCE, POWER

AUTHORITATIVE COMMANDS

ALLIES, DOMINANT COALITIONS

When the goals pursued are incompatible with others’ goals

When important, yet unpopular actions must be taken

On issues where there can be no compromise, and time is critical

When we think we’re “in the right”

Against those who have taken unfair advantage in the past

COMPROMISING

BARGAINING

MEDIATION

ARBITRATION

When opponents with equal power have mutually exclusive goals

To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure

To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues

As a backup (“Plan B”) when competitive and collaborative attempts fail

When goals are not worth the disruption of assertive approaches

thomas conflict resolution strategies 3
THOMAS’ CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES - 3

COLLABORATIVE

PROBLEM-SOLVING MEETINGS

CONFRONTATION AND HONEST COMMUNICATION

SEARCH FOR SUPERORDINATE GOALS

EXPAND SCARCE RESOURCES

When both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised

When the goals of both parties differ, but are potentially compatible

When interaction and cooperation are very important for goal attainment

To work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship

ground rules for confrontation
GROUND RULES FOR CONFRONTATION
  • Review and clarify the issues and facts
  • Begin with a positive overture
  • Communicate freely, don’t hold back grievances
  • Address problems, not personalities
  • Don’t attack things that are irrelevant
  • Keep focused on specifics – don’t argue aimlessly
  • Don’t use inflammatory rhetoric
  • Make sure all participants say all they want to say