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COLOR The Next Dimension Why use color? Color adds information that is often difficult to describe with words Color adds a sense of beauty and excitement otherwise hard to capture But. . . Color illustrations require time, talent, and planning

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slide1

COLOR

The Next Dimension

slide2

Why use color?

  • Color adds information that is often difficult to describe with words
  • Color adds a sense of beauty and excitement otherwise hard to capture
slide3

But. . .

  • Color illustrations require time, talent, and planning
  • Color is more difficult to reproduce accurately in print, but more easily in digital media
  • Color is expensive to print, except in large press runs; cost often borne by scientist
slide4

Natural color

  • Symbolic color
  • Design color
slide5

Natural color

  • Captures the true color of the specimen
  • Most common use of color
  • Usually watercolor, gouache, acrylic paints, colored pencil, or mixed media
slide6

Symbolic color

  • Use of standard colors to portray different structures (e.g., red arteries, blue veins, yellow nerves)
  • Often used in medical and/or instructional illustrations

http://catalog.nucleusinc.com/nucleusindex.php?

slide7

Design color

  • Color is used as part of the overall design to communicate information quickly, precisely, and noticeably

http://www.komengreaterlansing.com

slide9

Primary colors

  • Irreducible components of color
  • Combinations of the 3 primaries produce entire (infinite) spectrum of color
slide10

Red

Orange

Yellow

Green

Blue

Indigo

Violet

ADDITIVE

primary colors of LIGHT

slide11

ADDITIVE primary colors of LIGHT

RGB color of computer monitors, television, and (approximately) human vision

Green

Yellow

Cyan

Red

Blue

Magenta

slide12

A computer monitor pixel is composed of 3 subpixels (each a tiny transistor) with red, green, and blue filters. Through the careful control and variation of the voltage applied, the intensity of each subpixel can range over 256 levels (black =0, white=255). Combining the subpixels produces a possible palette of 16.8 million colors (256 shades of red x 256 shades of green x 256 shades of blue).

slide14

CMYK color of printing

SUBTRACTIVE primary colors of TRANSPARENT PIGMENTS/INKS

Yellow

Red

Green

Magenta

Cyan

Blue

slide15

SUBTRACTIVE primary colors of OPAQUE PIGMENTS

Yellow

Orange

Green

Red

Blue

Violet

slide16

ADDITIVE mixture involves the addition of spectral components (light)

SUBTRACTIVE mixture involves the absorption (or subtraction) of spectral components (pigments and dyes)

slide18

Yellow

Primary

Red

Blue

Subtractive primary colors

(pigments)

slide19

Yellow

Secondary

Orange

Green

Red

Blue

Violet

slide20

Yellow

Tertiary

Yellow-orange

Yellow-green

Orange

Green

Red-orange

Blue-green

Red

Blue

Red-violet

Blue-violet

Violet

slide21

Yellow

Yellow-orange

Yellow-green

Orange

Green

Red-orange

Blue-green

Color Wheel

Red

Blue

Red-violet

Blue-violet

Violet

slide22

http://www.malanenewman.com/browser_safe_color_wheel.html

http://www.realcolorwheel.com/rcwplotter.htm

http://www.corel.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=Corel3/Section/Display&sid=1047024315119&gid=1047024331836&cid=1047023275319

http://www.businesscreatorpro.com/articles/graphic_design_article.php

slide23

Rules of

Harmony

slide27

Split

complementary

slide28

Analogous

complementary

slide29

Double

complementary

tetradic

slide32

See the “Color Guide” and “Live Color”

features new to Illustrator CS3

slide33

Qualities of color

  • Hue (the named color)
  • Saturation (chroma or tone)
  • Brightness (intensity or value)
  • Temperature
  • Transparency & opacity
slide34

Yellow

Hue

Orange

Green

Red

Blue

Violet

slide37

Hue, saturation, brightness spectrum

http://livedocs.adobe.com/en_US/Photoshop/10.0/WSAAFD9CC8-831E-4593-8694-B39919F72A26.html

slide38

Temperature

Warm

Cool

slide40

Color Modes in AdobeCS Applications

Illustrator

Photoshop

Grayscale

RGB

HSB

CMYK

Web Safe RGB

Bitmap

Grayscale

RGB

HSB

CMYK

Lab

Web Color

slide42

Color Spaces and Gamuts

L*a*b

Device-independent (L*a*b) and device-dependent (everything else)

http://photo.net/digital-darkroom-forum/00QNAo

http://help.adobe.com/en_US/Acrobat/9.0/Standard/WSFC77A86E-F68E-4906-A42D-6EAF5AB4F675.html

http://www.tasi.ac.uk/advice/creating/colour2.html

slide43

RGB vs CMYK

RGB: colors of computer monitors; larger color gamut than CMYK; colors appear brighter, more vibrant

CMYK: colors of transparent inks in 4 process printing;

smaller gamut; many RGB colors “out of gamut”, cannot be printed in CMYK inks.

CMYK

RGB

slide44

RGB vs CMYK

Orthodoxy: RGB images must be converted to CMYK prior to 4-process printing. Work in CMYK for printing.

NO!: Work in RGB! Larger gamut, more flexibility. Consumer inkjet printers convert to CMYK automatically and do an excellent job (use as reference). Otherwise, use Adobe CS software to convert a copy or let the commercial press do it for you. Adobe CS software gives “out of gamut” warnings when working in RGB.

slide45

Color Management

Calibrate your monitor —Use Displays > Color utility in Mac OS System Preferences (for more precision use calibration hardware, e.g., Datacolor’s Spyder3 series or Spyder2express)

Choose a color space in your Adobe CS application — Under the Edit > Color Settings menu. Choose North America Prepress 2 and its default settings, including Preserve Embedded Profiles. Synchronize these settings among your CS applications.

Acquire printer profiles — visit your printer company’s website and download the current printer drivers and/or ICC profiles for your printer/paper combination.

Set a Custom Proof Condition for your printer and paper — View > Proof Setup > Custom and under Device to Simulate select the printer/paper profile you downloaded earlier; now you can View > Proof Colors to see what your document will look like (approximately) in print.

See the CS application Help Guides and the references listed at the end of this presentation for complete directions on calibration, profiles, proofing, etc.

slide46

Techniques

  • Colored pencil
  • Watercolor
  • Gouache
  • Acrylics
slide47

Colored Pencil

  • Can give excellent textural detail and rich color effects
  • Minimal materials needed
  • Inexpensive
  • Fast
  • Excellent with mixed media
slide48

Surfaces:

  • Illustration board-any surface with good “tooth” and random texture, such as cold-press, 100% rag mat board, cold-press Bristol board, or Kid-finish Strathmore
  • Drafting film-acetate or polyester, matte 1- or 2 sides, e.g. Herculene (K&E)
slide49

Media:

  • Pencils-At least a basic set of 12 pencils representing the primaries through tertiaries:
  • Sanford Prismacolor
  • Sanford Prismacolor Verithin
  • Sanford Prismacolor Watercolor
  • Derwent Studio
  • Faber Castell Polychromos
  • White gouache or acrylic paint
slide50

Tools:

  • Small sable watercolor brush for dry-brushing highlights
  • Eraser-Pink Pearl, etc.
  • X-Acto knife
  • Workable fixative
slide51

Technique:

  • Transfer pencil sketch using light-hued colored pencil (e.g., non-photo blue), not graphite
  • For brilliant or light colored areas, lay down a base of white. On film, back-paint with white acrylic afterwards
  • Use sharpened pencils to apply tiny, closely placed strokes in any pattern. Do not use stump to blend strokes
  • Begin with middle tones, working towards darks and lights; light colors over darker; lighten with white pencil
  • Combine colors for brilliant effects
  • Avoid overworking or the surface will become saturated (surface becomes shiny)
  • For very bright primary highlights, dry-brush with white acrylic paint
  • Spray finished drawing with workable fixable
slide52

Prismacolor pencils on Cronaflex drafting film. Image was backpainted white, then shadows added with carbon dust on the back of the film. Details were enhanced with knife and graphite pencil. Lady beetle by George Venable.

iridescence
Iridescence

Bernand Durin

iridescence54
Iridescence

Metallic, iridescent, or fluorescent paints do not reproduce in print

Study specimen in fixed position and try to break down the iridescence into individual areas of color

Place brilliant colors adjacent to each other

Use intense colored highlights, not white, and deep blacks next to suddenly emerging colors

Avoid gradual shading, juxtapose lights and darks somewhat sharply

slide55

violet blue

dark emerald green

dark emerald green

black

darkest emerald green

yellow-green highlight

GNSI Handbook

references and recommended readings
References and recommended readings:
  • For general information and techniques:
  • The Guild Handbook, chapters 6, 8, 9, 13
  • Wood, chapter 6
  • Leland, N. 1998. Exploring Color, rev. ed.
  • Photoshopand Illustrator Help Guides
  • For color management within the AdobeCS applications:
  • Alspach, T. 2007. Illustrator CS3 Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc. Indianapolis, Indiana. 711 pp.
  • Blatner, D., C. Chavez, and B. Fraser. 2007. Real World Adobe Photoshop CS3. Peachpit Press. Berkeley, California. 768 pp.
  • Fuller, L.U., and R.C. Fuller. 2007. Photoshop CS3 Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc. Indianapolis, Indiana. 1164 pp. + CD-ROM
  • Weinmann, E. and P. Lourekas. 2007. Visual Quickstart Guide: Photoshop CS3 for Windows and Macintosh. Peachpit Press. Berkeley, California. 439 pp.
  • Weinmann, E. and P. Lourekas. 2007. Visual Quickstart Guide: Illustrator CS3 for Windows and Macintosh. Peachpit Press. Berkeley, California. 456 pp