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Chip Seal Design Methods. Vishwanath Pothukutchi. Introduction. Early practitioners used empirical methods to design sealing a pavement. It was considered an art. The Design involves calculating : Quantity of aggregate Quantity of bituminous binder. Introduction.

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chip seal design methods

Chip Seal Design Methods

Vishwanath Pothukutchi

introduction
Introduction
  • Early practitioners used empirical methods to design sealing a pavement.
  • It was considered an art.
  • The Design involves calculating :
  • Quantity of aggregate
  • Quantity of bituminous binder.
introduction3
Introduction
  • The various methods proposed were as follows:
  • Hanson’s Method (1934/35)
  • McLeod’s Method (1969)
  • Kearby’s Method (1953)
  • Modified Kearby’s Method(1981)
  • Road Note 39 (U.K.)
  • Austroads sprayed Seal Design Method.
  • TRH3(South Africa Method)
hanson s method
Hanson’s Method
  • Designed primarily for cutback asphalt and was based on the Average Least Dimension(ALD) of the aggregate.
  • ALD was measured manually using calipers.
  • It was theorized that the voids after laying the aggregate in the binder were 50%.
hanson s method5
Hanson’s Method
  • When the layer is rolled it is reduced to 30%.
  • When the cover aggregate would be compacted by traffic it reduces to 20%.
  • Hanson specified that the % voids to be filled by binder to be 60% to 75%.
mcleod s method
McLeod’s Method
  • Aggregate application rate depends on gradation, shape and specific gravity.
  • Binder application rate depends on aggregate gradation, absorption, shape, traffic volume, residual asphalt content of binder.
  • Has been primarily developed for use with emulsion binders.
mcleod s method7
McLeod’s Method

Basic Principles :

  • The aggregate spread should be designed such that the resulting seal coat is one stone thick.
  • The binder spread rate should be designed such that the 70 % of the voids in aggregate are filled.
mcleod s method equations for aggregate spread rate
McLeod’s MethodEquations for Aggregate spread rate

Equations for Aggregate spread rate are as follows:

mcleod s method9
McLeod’s Method
  • C is the Aggregate application rate

V is the % of voids in loose aggregate

H is the average least dimension

G is the bulk specific gravity

E is the traffic whip off factor.

mcleod s method10
McLeod’s Method
  • The binder spread rate was given by the equation

Here

B is the binder spread rate.

H is the Average least dimension

T is the Traffic Volume Factor

S is the Surface factor and

A is the absorption factor and R is the % of asphalt

residue.

kearby s method
Kearby’s Method
  • In Kearby’s method the aggregate spread rate was dependent on average thickness, percentage aggregate embedment, bulk specific gravity, and quantity of aggregate required to cover one square yard of road way.
  • Kearby’s work resulted