Chapter 118: “Purposes, Standards and Procedures for Educational Personnel Support Systems” Maine Department of Education
The Revised Chapter 118: • RSUs to change to an Induction Program based on Maine's Initial Teacher Certification Standards (passed into law in 1998). • Though each indicator under the standard does not need to be met, the activities/goals on the TAP need to holistically reflect the ten standards;
The Revised Chapter 118: • Assigning ONE trained mentor, instead of the three member support team; • Mentors: • Are trained in Department of Education approved training; • do observations based on Maine's Initial Teacher Certification Standards; • and meet with the new teacher regularly, on a one-on-one basis for the full initial period;
The Revised Chapter 118: • That earning the initial professional certificate will be based on the new teacher’s demonstration of Maine’s Initial Teacher Certification Standards with aid from the mentor and the local certification committee (Professional Learning Community Support System, or PLCSS);
The Revised Chapter 118: • The PLCSS team shall include professionally certified educators, one administrator (and educational technicians if included in PLCSS); • The language, “recently active practitioners” was added to allow the use of certified educators, not currently teaching, to increase the available pool of mentors; • Educational Technicians may be included at the discretion of the RSU;
The Revised Chapter 118: • Use of the National Board for Professional Teacher Standards to receive Master Teacher Certification; • Implementation of the local revised plan is dependent upon the receipt of appropriate, additional funding through the EPS formula; • Each RSU shall submit a plan pursuant to the current PLCSS rule no later than Dec 31, 2009.
Support for the Implementation: • The process must be supported for RSUs and teachers and so: • Chapter 118 is accompanied by a guidance document with specific sample templates, policies, procedures, and forms, now available online at;http://www.maine.gov/education/teacherinduction/resources.html • The timeline for implementation will allow three years, beginning in 2007-2008, for the necessary "ramp-up“ and professional development for RSUs to train mentors, and "test" their systems, to be fully implemented during the 2010-11 school year;
Support for the Implementation: • Mentors will be trained to aid the beginning teacher through the two year process. Training may be the Maine Model, or a commensurate one; • The Maine Department of Education will deliver training, and professional development during the 2007 through 2010 school years for mentor trainers and local certification committees; • Over 255 Mentor Trainers have now been trained in Maine via 12 Mentors Training Mentors workshops spanning 2003-2008 • Full compliance with the new Chapter 118 will occur with the candidates for Professional Certification in 2010-2011.
Support for the Implementation: • Augusta (2) • Ellsworth • Greenville • Machias* • North Berwick *Planned sessions Spring 2008 • 2007-2008 Chapter 118 • Informational Session Locations • Portland • Bangor • Caribou • Houlton • East Millinocket* • Mexico*
Support for the Implementation: • 2007-2008 Chapter 118 • Informational Session Locations • Bethel • Farmington • Madison • Turner • Other sessions occurred as a part of technical assistance to SAU’s piloting the PLCSS procedures and materials revision process. • Fryeburg • Gray • Bridgton • Kingfield
Support for the Implementation: Projected Percentage of SAU’s in Superintendent Regions with Chapter 118 trained educators Region I: Aroostook: 59% Region II: Penquis: 81% Region III Washington: 100%Region IV: Hancock: 88% Region V: Mid Coast: 38%Region VI: Western: 81% Region VII: Cumberland: 80% Region VIII: Kennebec: 75% Region IX: York: 67%
Maine’s Mentor Training Model • This workshop introduces mentors to the needs of beginning educators and how best to mentor/coach them toward professional certification. • The three day workshop was developed by the Maine Department of Education during a 2001-2003 Title IIA research grant. It was designed with consultation from national consultants, based on accepted best practice. • Hundreds of mentors across Maine have praised it for its useful “nuts and bolts” skills and knowledge. Feedback has consistently asked for a 4th day.
Mentoring Five Essential Activities of Effective Induction Programs Orientation Workshops and training designed for new teachers Observation of excellent teaching Peer support activities Activity 2.3 Slide 13
The Importance of Mentoring Mentoring is the component of the induction of new teachers that is the most crucial for transforming the practice of teaching and is the shrewdest investment in teacher quality. Mentoring is part of a comprehensive plan for professional growth, grounded in what we know about adult learning and development. Note. From Mentoring New Teachers Through Collaborative Coaching: Facilitation and Training Guide, by Kathy Dunne and Susan Villani, 2006, San Francisco: WestEd. Copyright 2006 by WestEd. Activity 2.3 Slide 3
Influence of Teacher Qualificationson Student Achievement Note. Developed from data in "Paying for Public Education: New Evidence of How and Why Money Matters," by Ronald F. Ferguson, summer 1997, Harvard Journal on Legislation 2B, pp. 465–98. Copyright 1997 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Used with permission. Activity 2.3 Slide 5
National Shortage of Qualified Teachers • 20% of high school science teachers lack even a minor in their main teaching field. • 56% of high school students taking physical science are taught by out-of-field teachers. Note. From Before It's Too Late: A Report to the Nation from the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, 2000, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Activity 2.3 Slide 6
National Need for New Educators • Two-and-one-half million additional elementary and secondary teachers are needed to address teacher attrition, enrollment growth, demand for small classes, and fill retirements. • Largest shortages are for mathematics, science, and multilingual educators. Note. From Predicting the Need for Newly Hired Teachers in the United States to 2008–09, by William Hussar, 1999, Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics; and from The Secretary's Fourth Annual Report on Teacher Quality: A Highly Qualified Teacher in Every Classroom, by U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education, 2005. Activity 2.3 Slide 7
Losses We Cannot Afford 30–50% of teachers leave the profession within the first three years of teaching Note. From "Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence,” by Linda Darling-Hammond, January 1, 2000, Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(1). Activity 2.3 Slide 8
New Teacher Attrition Why do good teachers leave? • Isolating and non-supportive teaching environments • Poor working conditions • Overwhelming teaching assignments Note. From Teacher Attrition: A Costly Loss to the Nation and to the States (Issue Brief), August 2005, Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education. Activity 2.3 Slide 10
In the Glendale Union High School district, in Glendale, Arizona, 47% of teachers hired in 1991 remained within the district for five years. After the mentoring program was implemented, the percentage ranged from 53% to 80%. In Albuquerque, New Mexico, more than 85% of teachers who started their careers as resident teachers were still teaching after five years. The Difference a Mentoring Program Makes in Teacher Retention Note. From Mentoring Programs for New Teachers: Models of Induction and Support, by Susan Villani, 2002, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Activity 2.3 Slide 11
In Columbus, Ohio, in 1995 the retention rate was 85%, ten years after the PAR induction and support program was instituted. In Rochester, New York, in 1986, before the mentor program was started, 65% of new teachers remained in the district. The first year of the program, the retention rate grew to 91%. In California, studies ofthe Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) program found that where new teachers were mentored for one year, 90% were teaching after five years, compared with only 40–50% of teachers who didn’t receive such support. The Difference a Mentoring Program Makes in Teacher Retention Note. From Mentoring Programs for New Teachers: Models of Induction and Support, by Susan Villani, 2002, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Note. From “California Revises Training for New Teachers,” Education Week, October 7, 1968. Activity 2.3 Slide 12
“What matters most: teaching for America’s future.” Three central messages: 1 What teachers know and can do is one of the most important influences on what students learn. 2 Recruiting, preparing, and retaining good teachers is the central strategy for improving our schools. 3 School reform cannot succeed unless it focuses on creating the conditions in which teachers can teach and teach well. • National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (NCTAF), “No Dream Denied”, 2003.
The Coaching Cycle The Planning Conversation Intentional Instruction The Reflecting Conversation Coaching Observation and Data Gathering Note. From Mentoring New Teachers Through Collaborative Coaching: Facilitation and Training Guide, by Kathy Dunne and Susan Villani, 2006, San Francisco: WestEd. Copyright 2006 by WestEd. Activity 3.10 Slide 2
A Collaborative Coaching Model Students’ GROWTH, LEARNING, AND ACHIEVEMENT CONSISTENT and DIFFERENTIATED Instructional behaviors INTENTIONALITY in teaching, learning, and assessing COACH NEW TEACHER Coach’s and New Teacher’s Reflective Questioning and Data Gathering Note. From Mentoring New Teachers Through Collaborative Coaching: Facilitation and Training Guide, by Kathy Dunne and Susan Villani, 2006, San Francisco: WestEd. Copyright 2006 by WestEd. Activity 3.11 Slide 1
Phases of a New Teacher’s Attitudes Figure 1: The Phases of a First-Year Teacher’s Attitude Toward Teaching Note. From “The Stages of a Teacher’s First Year,” by Ellen Moir, in A Better Beginning: Supporting New Teachers, by Marge Scherer (Ed.), 1999, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). Copyright 1999 by ASCD. Used with permission of the publisher. Activity 3.4 Slide 1
Costs To Replace a Teacher • To replace a teacher in: • California is $10,0001 • Texas is $8,0002 • Maine is $7,0003 Cost includes secretarial time, advertisement and mailing, administrator and teacher time for interviews and decision-making, professional development/training, etc. 1 MEA, Maine Educator, May, 2001 2 NCTAF Report, 2003 3 K-12 Education Recruitment and Retention Commission of Maine, 2001
Costs To Students • Tennessee study: Children who had the least effective teachers three years in a row posted academic achievement gains 54% lower than children with the most effective teachers. *Boston & Dallas studies yielded similar findings.
The Need For Induction Programs in Maine • Teachers not participating in induction models are twice as likely to leave teaching as those who participate. - MEA, Maine Educator, May, 2001 • Many of the most talented new educators are those who leave teaching. - NCTAF Report, 2003 • 18.2% of Maine teachers have 5 or fewer years of experience. - K-12 Education Recruitment and Retention Commission of Maine, 2001 • 18.6% of teachers with up to 5 years of experience left their job in 1998-99 which is one-third of all teachers who left and twice the turnover rate of more experienced educators - K-12 Education Recruitment and Retention Commission of Maine, 2001
Implementation Sequence, based on Maine’s Induction Standards • Design phase with all stakeholders • Policies/procedures/selection process • Professional development planned • Training/orientation given • Building activities begin and are monitored • Regular meetings, documentation & feedback • End of year evaluation/revision
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Apr May Jun July Aug Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Possible Timeline • Phase 1 : • Perform needs assessment & build stakeholders’ consensus (faculty, administration, school board, & community) • Set goals/outcomes based on needs assessment & LEA goals • Create/revise policies, procedures, and support materials • Create/revise budgets/support structures (i.e. schedules, release times) • Identify positions needed, recruit & train mentors • Plan professional development Aug Sep Nov Dec Oct
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Apr May Jun July Aug Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Possible Timeline • Phase 2 : • New Teacher Orientation & mentoring teams assigned • Baseline data collected, Teacher Action Plans completed/submitted • Regular meetings/workshops scheduled and begun • Documentation of all activities for evaluation/revisions • Survey data used to check efficacy of program, & adjust/plan • Report on progress to stakeholders (faculty, administration, school board, & community) Aug Sep Nov Dec Oct
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Apr May Jun July Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Possible Timeline • Phase 3 : • Continue program components/activities • Create/revise budgets/support structures (i.e. schedules, release times) • Mid-year survey and program evaluation/revisions/adjustments • Reflection on/Submission of TAP evidence, end of year survey • Program evaluation/revisions • Report to stakeholders, set new goals/outcomes Aug Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Interim & Supplemental Funding Sources • Professional Development funds • NCLB Title IIA– Teacher Quality Grant funds • Rural Schools Grant (RSG) and Rural Low Income Grant (RLI) • Certification Budget line • Contracted Stipend line • Course reimbursement line • $$ saved from the retirement of senior faculty (e.g. retires at $50,000; hires at $30,000)
Professional Learning Communities According to Robert Eaker, Richard DuFour, and Rebecca DuFour “Professional Learning Communities” are characterized by certain key characteristics:
Professional Learning Communities 1. Shared mission, vision, values: Emphasis is on learning, not teaching, with a focus on achievement. 2. Collaborative teams: Teams work interdependently toward common goals, learning from each other, thus leading to continuous improvement. 3. Collective inquiry: Collective inquiry is conducted into both best practice, and data, and how they are linked. 4. Action orientation and experimentation: Experimentation is ongoing with a focus on results, both positive and negative, in order to improve teaching and learning. 5. Continuous improvement: This is evidenced by innovation, experimentation, and reflection leading to revised actions. 6. Results orientation: This characteristic guides all the other activities through reflection on data, and assessment of effectiveness.
RESEARCH ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT • When educators formed learning teams for sharing, observing, and peer coaching, 88% of educators used new strategies regularly and effectively. • Lashway, 1998
If educators are to promote successful teaching of all students to high standards, virtually everyone who affects student learning must be learning virtually all the time . . . Itis difficult to overestimate the amount of study, practice, coaching, discussion, small group problem solving, and other forms of follow-up that are necessary to change instruction and improve student learning. -Adapted from Sparks, in Guskey, 2000 RESEARCH ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
In award winning professional development programs studied by WestED, staff development had shifted from isolated learning and the occasional workshop to focused, ongoing organizational learning built on collaborative reflection and joint action. -WestED, 2000 RESEARCH ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Changes that Support Organizational Learning: • Time for educators to work and reflect on practice together • educators working in small groups • Leaders who cultivate and maintain a shared vision • ERIC Digest, 2003
A Case Study of the Model in Action • During the 2 school years of 2003 -2005, Lake Region School District (SAD # 61) fully implemented Maine’s Model of Induction. • Data on/from participants indicate substantial improvements in new teacher retention, job satisfaction, and feelings of efficacy. • These data indicate similar benefits for mentor teachers. • Findings from this implementation period follow.
SAD # 61 2004 Year-End Mentor Survey What positive impact has this year’s work with your mentee had in your teaching practice and student achievement? *Responses were categorized, with the number of similar responses given. • “Mentoring has made me reflect and improve on my own teaching practice” – 15 • “Mentoring has been a reenergizing, reinvigorating process for me” -6 • “I felt good that I was able to help a colleague into the profession” – 5 • “It helped to break the isolation of teaching” - 3
SAD # 61 2005 Year-End New Teacher Survey What positive impact has this year’s work with your mentor had in your teaching practice and student achievement? • “My Mentor helped me plan curriculum and stay on schedule” – 4 • “Observations and meetings with my Mentor helped me reflect on my practice and improve my teaching” -4 • “My Mentor helped me feel confident in my teaching and gave me personal support during stressful times” – 6 • “My Mentor spent many of our meetings helping me with questions about my certification and required classes.” – 3 • My Mentor helped me to acclimate to Maine’s Learning Results, and the District.” – 3
SAD # 61 Trained Mentors by Grade/Subject & Building, June 2005 Grade K:4 (2SLS, 2SBES) Ex. Studies: 1 (MS) Grade 1: 2 (SLS) Science: 3 (2HS) 1MS) Grade 2: 2 (SBES) Social Studies: 2 (1HS, 1MS) Grade 3: 1 (SBES) English: 5 (2HS, 3 MS) Grade 4: 1 (CRES) Foreign Lang.: 1 (HS) Grade 5: 2 (SBES, CRES) Title I: 1 (K-3) Grade 6: 2 (CRES) Math: 2 (HS) Guidance: 1 (K-3) Vocational Ed.: 1 (VC) Music: 4 (1HS, 2 K-6) Art: 2 (1HS, 1 K-6) PE/HE: 2 (1 HS, 1 K-3) Special Ed.: 9 (1 HS, 2 MS, 1 CRES, 3 SLS, 1SBES, 1 CMS) • Total Trained Mentors: 48 (3 Mentor Trainings)
Weekly Mentor/Mentee Meetings Aug. 2003 - Mar. 2004 Month Hours Spent # of Meetings Logs Rec’d/Teams Avg. Length August 3.5 7 5/15 30 min. September 48 83 22/25 35 min. October 60 76 21/25 47 min. November 43.5 74 20/25 35 min. December 25.5 39 15/22 39 min. January 39 60 15/21 39 min. February 29 49 14/21 36 min. March 20 35 7/21 34 min. • Total: 268.5 Hrs. 423 Mtgs 119 Logs 38 Min. avg.
Attrition and Retention 2003 - 2004 • Total Attrition 9 • Total 1 Yr. Positions - 4 • Total Resignations 5 out of 24 (21%) New Teachers Retained 2003 - 2004 • Total Retained =15 out of 20 (75%) • Previous years’ attrition rates averaged 18 per year
Maine State Induction Program Standards 1. Supporting policies and procedures for a district induction program are provided. 2. School district shareholders form a team that designs an induction program. 3. Mentor teachers will be selected based on well-defined selection criteria and process, and are matched with beginning teachers following a prescribed procedure. 4. Procedures for mentors are established. 5. Professional development/support is provided throughout the year for beginning teachers. 6. An evaluation of the induction program is conducted. Maine Department of Education, 2003
Maine State Induction Program Standardswith Indicators 1. Supporting policies and procedures for a district induction program are provided. a. Board policies and district procedures exist to support the local induction program b. Incentives exist for mentors. d c. Time is provided for mentor and beginning teacher to meet weekly and observe in other classrooms periodically. d. Beginning teacher assignments and schedules are equitable. e. A provision is in place for content mentoring
Maine State Induction Program Standardswith Indicators 1 2. School district shareholders form a team that designs an induction program. a a. A multi-representative team designs the induction program and identifies the process for creating an induction committee that will manage and assess the induction program.
Maine State Induction Program Standardswith Indicators 3. Mentor teachers will be selected based on well-defined selection criteria and process, and are matched with beginning teachers following a prescribed procedure. a. Written criteria for selecting mentors are identified and potential mentors complete an application. b. An induction committee selects mentors with input from the building principal. c. Grade level, content, location, and compatibility of individual style of mentor are considered when matching mentor and beginning teacher. d. An exit plan exists in the event that matches do not work.