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  1. Influencing Parental Driving Behaviour: A pilot studyDr Mark A. Elliott1, Claire Wood2 & Scott Orr11School of Psychological Sciences & Health, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow2The Leith Agency, Edinburgh

  2. Presentation outline • Background to the project • The 2013 Parental Influence Campaign • IF-THEN plans • What have we done in this project? • Development of the IF-THEN interventions • Road safety sessions in primary schools • Surveys of parents • What do we hope to learn from this project?

  3. Flash back to 2013

  4. #bestplacetogrowup

  5. IF-THEN Plans

  6. IF-THEN plans Source: Elliott, M. A., & Armitage, C. J. (2006). Effects of implementation intentions on the self-reported frequency of drivers' compliance with speed limits. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 12, 108-117

  7. IF-THEN plans Source: Elliott, M. A. (2012). Testing the capacity within an extended theory of planned behaviour to reduce the commission of driving violations. Transportmetrica, 8, 321-343.

  8. IF-THEN plans • Strategy to help people convert intentions into action (Gollwitzer, 1993; Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006) • IF component: • Specification of a critical situation in which to perform an intended behaviour e.g. ‘If I am being tailgated….’ • THEN component: • Specification of a strategy to perform when the specified critical situation is encountered e.g. ...‘Then I will make an extra effort to monitor my speed’

  9. How do IF-THEN plans ‘work’? IF I am being tailgated… …THEN I will make an extra effort to monitor my speed In order to avoid speeding

  10. How do IF-THEN plans ‘work’? IF I am being tailgated… …THEN I will make an extra effort to monitor my speed In order to avoid speeding Specified situation encountered

  11. How do IF-THEN plans ‘work’? IF I am being tailgated… …THEN I will make an extra effort to monitor my speed In order to avoid speeding Specified situation encountered Image of the specified situation comes to mind…

  12. How do IF-THEN plans ‘work’? IF I am being tailgated… …THEN I will make an extra effort to monitor my speed In order to avoid speeding Specified situation encountered Image of the specified situation comes to mind… …and increases the likelihood that the specified strategy will be deployed

  13. How do IF-THEN plans ‘work’? IF I am being tailgated… …THEN I will make an extra effort to monitor my speed In order to avoid speeding Specified situation encountered Image of the specified situation comes to mind… …and increases the likelihood that the specified strategy will be deployed

  14. Evidence that IF-THEN planning sheets improve driver behaviour Source: Brewster, S. E., Elliott, M. A., & Kelly, S.W. (2015). Evidence that implementation intentions reduce drivers' speeding behavior: Testing a new intervention to change driver behavior. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 74, 229-242. • N=110 drivers recruited from: • Scottish Universities • Local business in Glasgow • Online driving discussion forums • Speeding measured using validated questionnaires • 9-point response scales F (1, 108) = 15.89, p < .001, d = -0.76 Speeding Behaviour

  15. Evidence that IF-THEN planning sheets improve driver behaviour Source: Brewster, S. E., Elliott, M. A., McCartan, R., McGreggor, B., & Kelly, S. W. (2016). Conditional or unconditional? The effects of implementation intentions on driver behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 22, 124-133. • N=65 drivers recruited from: • University of Strathclyde • Residential areas around Glasgow • Speeding measured on a simulator • % distance speeding • Mean speed F (1, 63) = 7.55, p < .01, d = -0.68 F (1, 63) = 7.22, p < .01, d = -0.67

  16. Evidence that IF-THEN planning sheets improve driver behaviour Source: Elliott, M. A., Orr, S., Brewster, S. E., & McCartan, R. (in prep). Implementation intentions, driver behaviour and the moderating effects of trait self-regulation (assessment and locomotion). • N=125 drivers recruited from: • University of Strathclyde • Speeding measured on a simulator • % distance speeding F (1, 123) = 13.40, p < .001, d = -0.66

  17. The current project • Development of the IF-THEN planning interventions • Road safety sessions in schools • Surveys of parents (pilot testing the interventions)

  18. Development of the IF-THEN planning sheets • Designed to target Road Safety Scotland priority areas: • Speeding • Mobile phone use • Driving through amber or red traffic lights • IF statements developed from the literature on driving • Situations in which drivers are known to carry out the above behaviours (20 per behaviour) • THEN statements developed from psychological theory • Strategies to resit the temptation to carry out the behaviours (20 per behaviour) • Online delivery • IF and THEN statements presented in drop down menus

  19. Development of the IF-THEN planning sheets

  20. Development of the IF-THEN planning sheets

  21. Development of the IF-THEN planning sheets

  22. Development of the IF-THEN planning sheets

  23. Development of the IF-THEN planning sheets

  24. Development of the IF-THEN planning sheets

  25. The road safety sessions in schools • 6 schools recruited for the project • 2 in Edinburgh; 4 in Lanarkshire • 3 intervention schools; 3 control schools • Intervention and control schools matched: • Geographic area • School size • SES (free school meals in P4-P7)

  26. Survey of parents Time 1 Time 2 Online questionnaires of outcome measures (behavioural intentions and behaviour) Online questionnaires of outcome measures (behavioural intentions and behaviour) 1-month Intervention group Intervention + Online questionnaires of outcome measures (behavioural intentions and behaviour) Online questionnaires of outcome measures (behavioural intentions and behaviour) 1-month No intervention Control group +

  27. Surveys of parents

  28. Surveys of parents You recently completed a survey about driver attitudes and behaviours. At the end of the questionnaire, you made three plans to help you resist the temptation to drive faster than the speed limit. Below is a summary of the plans you made. Plan 1: IF I am tempted to drive faster than the speed limit when being overtaken by other traffic/another vehicle THEN I will think about the emotional pain I would suffer if my speeding caused a death or injury to someone. Plan 2: IF I am tempted to drive faster than the speed limit when I am late or in a hurry to get somewhere (e.g. work/an appointment/to meet friends) THEN I will try to avoid putting myself in that situation again in the future. Plan 3: IF I am tempted to driver faster than the speed limit when under pressure from another driver following close behind me THEN I will remind myself that drivers caught for speeding (e.g. by the police or safety cameras) face sanctions (e.g. fines/penalty points). Again, thank you for your help with this survey. It is very much appreciated.

  29. What do we hope to learn? • How effective are the methods for recruiting parents and delivering the interventions? • Are the outcome measures psychometrically reliable? • Do the interventions seem to be reducing (reported) risky driving behaviour and, if so, by how much? • And, therefore, would there be benefit in rolling out the interventions and the evaluation of them on a larger scale?

  30. Thanks for listening Any questions? Claire Wood The Leith Agency Edinburgh Email: claire.wood@leith.co.uk Tel: 0131 561 8607 Dr Mark Elliott School of Psychological Sciences and Health University of Strathclyde Email: mark.a.elliott@strath.ac.uk Tel: 0141 548 5829