SCOTTISH GASTRONOMY ALUMNOS: CIPRI RAMOS, JOSE MANUEL CABELLO, FRANCISCO JOSE MORENO Y ANTONIO PÉREZ ALUMNOS: CIPRI RAMOS, JOSE M. CABELLO, FRANCISCO J. MORENO Y ANTONIO PÉREZ
INDEX • Slides 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 → History • Slide 8 → Vocabulary • Slides 9 Y 10 → French Influence • Slides 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15→ Tradicional Scottish Specialities • Slides 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21 → Whisky
HISTORY • Scotland, with its temperate climate and abundance of indigenous game species, has provided a cornucopia of food for its inhabitants for millennia. The wealth of seafood available on and off the coasts provided the earliest settlers with their sustenance. Agriculture was introduced, with primitive oats quickly becoming the staple.
In common with many medieval European neighbours, Scotland was a feudal state for a greater part of the second millennium. This put certain restrictions on what one was allowed to hunt, therefore to eat. In the halls of the great men of the realm, one could expect venison, boar, various fowl and songbirds, expensive spices (pepper, cloves, cinnamon, etc.), as well as the meats of domesticated species.
From the Journeyman down to the lowest cottar, meat was an expensive commodity, and would be consumed rarely. For the lower echelons of Mediæval Scots, it was the products of their animals rather than the beasts themselves which provided nourishment. This is evident today in traditional Scots fayre, with its emphasis on dairy produce. It would appear that the average meal would consist of a pottage of herbs and roots, (and when available some meat or stock for flavouring) bread and cheese when possible.
Before Sir Walter Raleigh's introduction of the potato to the British Isles, the Scots' main sources of carbohydrate was gained from bread made from oats or barley. Wheat was generally difficult to grow because of the damp climate. Food thrift was evident from the earliest times, with excavated middens displaying little evidence of anything but the toughest bones. All parts of an animal were used.
The mobile nature of Scots society in the past required food that would not spoil quickly. It was common to carry a small bag of oatmeal that could be transformed into a basic porridge or oatcakes using a Girdle (griddle). It is theorised that Scotland's national dish, Haggis, originated in a similar way: A small amount of offal or low-quality meat, carried in the most inexpensive bag available, a sheep or pig's stomach. It has also been suggested that this dish was introduced by Norse invaders who were attempting to preserve their food during the long journey from Scandinavia. Return to index
SLIDE: DIAPOSITIVA SEAFOOD: MARISCO CINNAMON: CANELA NOURISHMENT: ALIMENTACIÓN ECHELON: ESCALÓN FOWL: AVE DE CORRAL SOURCE: FUENTE OATS: COPOS DE AVENA BARLEY: CEBADA OATMEAL: HARINA DE AVENA DOWNFALL: CAÍDA SCOPE: ALCANCE MYTH: MITO COOKERY: COCINA VOCABULARY
FRENCH INFLUENCE • During the Late Middle Ages and early modern era, the French cuisine started to play a role in Scottish cookery due to the cultural exchanges brought by the "Auld Alliance"; and especially during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary, on her return to Scotland brought an entourage of French staff who are considered responsible for revolutionising Scots cooking and for some of Scotland's unique food terminology.
This influence continued until the downfall of Jacobitism and the defeat at Culloden, when Scotland came into the cultural sphere of England, and the faculties of continental gastronomy were out of bounds. Return to index
TRADITIONAL SCOTTISH SPECIALITIES • CULLEN SKINK (soup) Cullen Skink is a thick Scottish soup made of smoked Finnan haddie, potatoes and onions. This soup is a local speciality, from the town of Cullen in Moray, on the north-east coast of Scotland. The soup is often served as a starter at formal Scottish dinners.
RASPBERRY (fruit) The raspberry is the edible fruit of a number of plant species in the subgenus Idaeobatus of the genus Rubus; the name also applies to these plants themselves. The name originally referred to the European species Rubus idaeus, with red fruit, and is still used for that species as its standard English name in its native area.
ARBROATH SMOKIE (fish) • The Arbroath Smokie originally came from the small fishing village of Auchmithie, 3 miles North-East of Arbroath. Local legend has it that a store caught fire one night, destroying barrels of Haddock preserved in salt. The following morning, the people of Auchmithie came to clean up the ruin and found some of the barrels had caught fire, cooking the Haddock inside. Further inspections revealed the Haddock was edible and quite tasty. In reality, it's much more likely that the villagers at Auchmithie are of Scandinavian descent as the 'Smokie making' process is similar to methods of smoking which are still carried out today in areas of Scandinavia. Return to index
HAGGIS (meat) Haggis is a traditional Scottish dish. There are many recipes, most of which have in common the following ingredients: sheep's 'pluck' (heart, liver and lungs), minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices, and salt, mixed with stock, and traditionally boiled in the animal's stomach for approximately three hours.
CLAPSHOT (vegetable) Clapshot is a traditional Scottish dish that originated in Orkney and is frequently served with mince or haggis. It is created by the combining mashing of potatoes and turnips. Canadian immigrants added beetroot to the mixture in 2007, to wide acclaim.
SCOTTISH WHISKY Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. In Britain, the term whisky is usually taken to mean Scotch unless otherwise specified. Scotch whisky is divided into four distinct categories: single malt, vatted malt (also called "pure malt"), blended and single grain.
HISTORY Whisky has been produced in Scotland for hundreds of years. Legend states that distillation first reached Scotland from monks in Ireland in the fourth and fifth centuries. The first taxes on whisky production were imposed in 1644, causing a rise in illicit whisky distilling in the country. Around 1780, there were about 8 legal distilleries and 400 illegal ones. In 1823, Parliament eased restrictions on licensed distilleries with the "Excise Act", while at the same time making it harder for the illegal stills to operate, thereby ushering in the modern era of Scotch production.
METHODS OF PRODUCTION • Malting Malt whisky production begins when the barley is malted—by steeping the barley in water, and then allowing it to get to the point of germination. Malting releases enzymes that break down starches in the grain and help convert them into sugars. When the desired state of germination is reached the malted barley is dried using smoke. Many (but not all) distillers add peat to the fire to give an earthy, peaty flavour to the spirit.
Mashing and fermentation The dried malt is ground into a coarse flour called "grist." This is mixed with hot water in a large vessel called a mash tun. The grist is allowed to steep. This process is referred to as "mashing," and the mixture as "mash". In mashing, enzymes that were developed during the malting process are allowed to convert the barley starch into sugar, producing a sugary liquid known as "wort".
Distillation The next step is to use a still to distil the mash. Distillation is used to increase the alcohol content and to remove undesired impurities such as methanol. There are two types of stills in use for the distillation: the pot still (for single malts) and the Coffey still (for grain whisky). • Maturation Once distilled the "new make spirit" is placed into oak casks for the maturation process. Historically, casks previously used for sherry were used (as barrels are expensive, and there was a ready market for used sherry butts). Nowadays the casks used are typically sherry or bourbon casks.
Bottling With single malts, the now properly aged spirit may be "vatted", or "married", with other single malts (sometimes of different ages) from the same distillery. The whisky is generally diluted to a bottling strength of between 40% and 46%. • Chill filtration This removes some of the compounds produced during distillation or extracted from the wood of the cask, and prevents the whisky from becoming hazy when chilled, or when water or ice is added.