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Alan Turing. Enigma Chris Jager. Contents. Introduction Childhood & Youth The Turing Machine Second World War Turing Test Turing’s Death References Questions. Introduction. Paper not finished (yet) A lot of information about the works of Turing

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alan turing

Alan Turing

Enigma

Chris Jager

contents
Contents
  • Introduction
  • Childhood & Youth
  • The Turing Machine
  • Second World War
  • Turing Test
  • Turing’s Death
  • References
  • Questions
introduction
Introduction
  • Paper not finished (yet)
  • A lot of information about the works of Turing
  • Less information about the person itself
childhood youth 1
Childhood & Youth (1)
  • Father, Julius Mathison Turing, Indian Civil Service
  • Mother, Ethel Sarah Stoney, daughter of chief engineer of the Madras Railways
  • Brother, John Turing, London solicitor
  • Alan Turing, born at 23rd of june, 1912
childhood youth 2
Childhood & Youth (2)
  • Father went to India
  • Grown up in different kind of families
  • First Science book resulted in experiments
  • “If he is to be solely a Scientific Specialist, he is wasting his time at a Public School “
turing machine 1
Turing Machine (1)
  • Christopher Morcom’s death
  • 1931 King’s College
  • “Could there exist, at least in principle, a definite method or process by which it could be decided whether any given mathematical assertion was provable”
turing machine 2
Turing Machine (2)
  • Kurt Gödel :
    • “Any consistent system cannot be used to prove its own consistency“
    • “In any consistent formalization of mathematics that is sufficiently strong to define the concept of natural numbers, one can construct a statement that can be neither proved nor disproved within that system“
turing machine 3
Turing Machine (3)
  • 1: A tape which is divided into cells, one next to the other.
  • 2: A head that can read and write symbols on the tape and move left and right.
  • 3: A state register that stores the state of the Turing machine
  • 4: An action table (or transition function)
turing machine 4
Turing Machine (4)
  • Universal Turing Machine
  • Programs
  • Paper in 1936: no method could decide whether an assertion is provable, “On Computable Numbers,with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem” at Princeton University
  • Lambda-calculus of Church
  • Church-Turing thesis: “
turing machine 5
Turing Machine (5)
  • Church-Turing thesis: “Any computer program in any of the conventional programming languages can be translated into a Turing machine, and any Turing machine can be translated into most programming languages, so the thesis is equivalent to saying that the conventional programming languages are sufficient to express any algorithm”
turing machine 6
Turing Machine (6)
  • Mechanical Turing Machine
  • http://www.igs.net/~tril/tm/tm.html
second world war 1
Second World War (1)
  • 1918 Arthur Scherbius built the Enigma
  • Before that, all coding systems were lingual based
  • Advantage Enigma: Enigma machine useless when stolen, cypher produced was very difficult
  • Polish were good at cracking codes
second world war 3
Second World War (3)
  • Polish enable to crack the code
  • Bought a commercial Enigma
  • Called for help: mathematicians
  • The French bought keys, couldn’t do anything with it
  • Poland foresaw its invasion by Germany: gave all knowledge to England and France, destroyed it afterwards (1939)
second world war 4
Second World War (4)
  • Enigma machine exists out of:
    • Plugboard
    • 3/ 4/ 5 rotors
    • “mirror” rotor
    • http://www.enigmaco.de/
second world war 5
Second World War (5)
  • 1939 Turing was asked to help to crack the Enigma
  • Built with a team the Colussus, the first programmable computer
  • Based on:
    • his own 1936 concept of the universal machine
    • the potential speed and reliability of electronic technology
    • the inefficiency in designing different machines for different logical processes
  • Cyphercode could be decrypted from 1943
  • All computers were destroyed, ordered by Churchill
turing test 1
Turing Test (1)
  • Because of the construction of the Colussus Turing thought it could be possible to construct a computer with the mind of a human being
  • Wasn’t focused anymore on what a TM could NOT do, but could do
  • “Turing was convinced that if a computer could do all mathematical operations, it could also do anything a person can do, a still highly controversial opinion“
turing test 2
Turing Test (2)
  • Manchester University
  • Neurology & physiology
  • Neville Johnson
  • Turing liked running very much: he even ran the Marathon

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Miscellaneous/Turing/Running.html

turing test 3
Turing Test (3)
  • 1950 “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”
  • Turing Test
  • 2000 a computer could pass
  • Round 1990 no computer came near breaking through the test, and still there isn’t any computer who can
turing test 4
Turing Test (4)
  • Focused more on biology
  • Used computers for his equations
  • First one who used computers for that purpose
turing s death
Turing’s Death
  • Arrested for being homosexual
  • Accepted a year being treated with oestrogen
  • Because of Cold War he was excluded from main projects
  • He wasn’t accepted anymore
  • Committed suicide by eating a cyanide poisoned apple, 8th of June 1954
references
References
  • http://artzia.com/History/Biography/Turing/
  • http://www.turing.org.uk/bio/part1.html
  • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Miscellaneous/Turing/Running.html
  • http://www.enigmaco.de/