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  1. Transportation Heating and Cooling Electricity Domestic Commercial Energy Needs

  2. Electricity generation - whether from fossil fuels, nuclear, renewable fuels, or other sources - is usually* based on the fact that: http://www.hawaii.gov/dbedt/ert/electgen.html

  3. In the picture, the shaft and armature (with copper wire) spin around. The magnets are on the outside (they don't move). Electricity, at the "+" and "-" terminals, is shown in the picture as a lighting bolt. Electric Generator

  4. Fuel use in U.S. - 1850 to 1990

  5. http://silver.neep.wisc.edu/~neep602/lecture41.html

  6. http://www.pafko.com/history/h_distill.html

  7. http://www.pafko.com/history/h_refine.html

  8. When will Oil Run Out?

  9. Going Back to Coal? • Petroleum/Natural Gas will run out in next 50 years • 97% of fossil fuel reserve is COAL • 20% of World's COAL supply is in the US

  10. Two Coal types dominate US Reserves • Oldest COAL (Anthracite) is 95% Carbon (300 million years old) • Younger coals (lignite) 25 Carbon (150 million years old) Bituminous is between that • Deposits are around 300 feet below surface and typically 2-8 feet thick Eastern Wyoming up to 100 feet thick!

  11. Shale Oil • Shale Oil Deposits in the US are found in SW Wyoming, Eastern Utah, and Western Colorado. • Oil Shale contains kerogen which, when burned, can be converted into fuel products. • The amount of Shale Oil Deposits are significantly greater than the amount of US petroleum deposits: • Petroleum: 214 Billion Barrels of Oil (24 Billion left now) • Shale Oil Equivalent: 2030 Billion Barrels of Oil (10 times more)

  12. Reality Check: • Economic mining requires a yield of 25 gallons of oil per ton of shale. Only 30% of the known deposit meets this criteria. • Of that 30%, only 15% (e.g. 80 Billion Barrels) is recoverable under present conditions. • Refinement of shale oil is quite difficult and requires a huge supply of water in the refining process. The Shale Oil reserves are located in arid regions. • Disposal of waste is a huge problem. Try heating it in place? • Bottom line: Shale Oil is not economically viable at this point. http://zebu.uoregon.edu/1999/ph161/l10.html

  13. Nuclear Plant

  14. Nuclear Waste • Yucca Mountain is the Department of Energy’s potential geologic repository designed to store and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If approved, the site would be the nation’s first geological repository for disposal of this type of radioactive waste.

  15. Geothermal hotsprings, Steamboat Springs, Nevada http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/overview.html#power_plants

  16. Geothermal Energy • Geothermal resources range from shallow ground to hot water and rock several miles below the Earth's surface, and even farther down to the extremely hot molten rock called magma. Earth's heat energy can be used directly or converted into electricity. The three technology categories are geothermal heat pumps, direct-use applications, and power plants.

  17. Three types of geothermal power plants are operating today: • Dry steam plants, which directly use geothermal steam to turn turbines; • Flash steam plants, which pull deep, high-pressure hot water into lower-pressure tanks and use the resulting flashed steam to drive turbines; and • Binary-cycle plants, which pass moderately hot geothermal water by a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water. This causes the secondary fluid to flash to vapor, which then drives the turbines.

  18. http://silver.neep.wisc.edu/~neep602/lecture41.html

  19. http://www.atmos.ucla.edu/AS2/scrns/top07.html

  20. UN link to visit • http://www.johannesburgsummit.org/html/media_info/pressreleases_factsheets/wssd_energy_3105.pdf