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A Half Century Panorama of Library and Information Science Education and Training in Hong Kong : From 1958 to 2008 and Beyond KAN Lai Bing Senior Adviser HKU SPACE YU Ling Ling College Senior Lecturer Community College, HKU SPACE

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slide1

A Half Century Panorama of Library and Information Science Education and Training in Hong Kong:From 1958 to 2008 and Beyond

KAN Lai BingSenior Adviser

HKU SPACE

YU Ling LingCollege Senior Lecturer

Community College, HKU SPACE

library and information science lis education and training in hong kong before 1960

Library and Information Science (LIS)Education and Training in Hong KongBefore 1960

There were only a few librarians, and some were expatriates and some locals.

Most of them were working in the library of the University of Hong Kong.

It is difficult to trace information on education and training on librarianship before 1960

lis education and training from 1960

LIS Education and Trainingfrom 1960

A variety of short courses on library techniques, cataloguing and classification were organized by the Department of Extra-mural Studies of the University of Hong Kong (HKU DEMS)

The Joint Certificate in Librarianship was offered from 1964 onwards

It is still available yearly and in cooperation with the Hong Kong Library Association (HKLA)

lis education and training from 19604

LIS Education and Trainingfrom 1960

All the courses for LIS education were operated in the part-time and short term mode

The target students were mainly the library practitioners at various level

Most of the courses before 2001 were offered by the Department of Extramural Studies of the University of Hong Kong.

In 1973, the CUHK Department of Extra-Mural Studies joined as a partner in the Certificate Course for Library Assistants and started to offer the course in Chinese medium.

slide5

LIS Education and TrainingBefore 2001

There were no full-time undergraduate and postgraduate courses in library science in the local universities

The subject of library science was only included in education studies of HKU as a small part as short courses between 1989-1998.

slide6

LIS Education and Training Before 2001

In 1990s, HKU DEMS started partnership with CSU, then there was a sudden boom in the mid nineties

A variety of distance learning programmes from the UK, US and Australia inevitably led to the over-supply of the courses in the same period

Also the programmes were rather expensive

With keen competition from the graduates returned from overseas, and many could not get a full-time employment in libraries so the number of applications dropped

The distance learning programmes operated by University of Wales, Aberystwyth / British Council as well as the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee / Chinese University of Hong Kong were suspended

Most of the courses organized in the 1990s were at professional level

slide7

A Chronology of the Courses After 1958

Year

Course Title

Delivery Mode

Language

Organizer

1960-1961

  • Library Techniques I

Part-time

English

HKU Dept of Extra-Mural Studies

(HKU DEMS)

1961-1962

  • Library Techniques II
  • Librarianship (圖書館學)

Part-time

Part-time

English Cantonese

(HKU DEMS)

1962-1963

  • Introduction to Librarianship (圖書館學)
  • Advanced library techniques

Part-time

Part-time

Cantonese

English

(HKU DEMS)

slide8

A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d)

1962-1964

  • Library Cataloguing and Classification (圖書編目分類學)

Part-time

Cantonese

(HKU DEMS)

1963-1964

1967

  • Librarianship
  • Librarianship (圖書館學)
  • Librarianship (Second year)

Part-time

Part-time

Part-time

English

Cantonese

English

(HKU DEMS)

1964-1967

  • Joint Certificate in Librarianship

Part-time

Yearly

(120 hours)

English / occasional Cantonese

(HKU DEMS) /

HKLA

slide9

A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d)

1967- to date

  • Certificate Course for Library Assistants

Part-time

Yearly

(120 hours)

English class; occasionally also Chinese class

HKU DEMS / HKLA

1973-1996

  • Certificate Course for Library Assistants ( 圖書助理員文憑課程)

Part-time

Yearly

(120 hours)

English (HKU)

Chinese

(CUHK)

HKU DEMS / HKLA / CUHK

1974-1976

  • Advanced Reference & Bibliography

Part-time

English

HKU DEMS

1967-1974

  • Librarianship: Intermediate Part I. Courses preparing students for The Library Association (London)’s examination

Part-time

Yearly

English

HKU DEMS

slide10

A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d)

1975-1980

  • Examination held in Hong Kong by the Australian Library Association

English

Australian Library Association

1977-1979

  • Advanced Classification (高級分類學)

Part-time 16 hours of lectures plus practical work

English (1977/78)

Cantonese (1978/79)

HKU DEMS

1979-

1980

  • Course for Teacher Librarians (part-time) (學校圖書館管理初級課程; 學校圖書館管理高級課程)

30 hours of lectures plus practical work

English

HKU DEMS /

Education Dept

slide11

A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d)

1980-1989

  • Diploma in Librarianship

part-time

3 years

(400 hrs)

English

HKU DEMS /

HKLA

1989-1998

  • In-service Teacher Education Programme (INSTEP)

Part-time short courses of lectures plus practical workshops

English

The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education / HKU DEMS (currently HKU SPACE)

1992

  • Refresher Course

Part-time one year course; day-release for teachers-librarians with 5-years of experience

English

HKU SPACE / Education Department

slide12

A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d)

1990-1993

1993-

to date

  • Diploma in Librarianship / Graduate Diploma of Arts
  • Diploma in Librarianship/ Graduate Diploma of Arts: Library and Information Science (currently Graduate Diploma in Applied Science - Library and Information Management)

part-time

3 years

(400 hrs)

3 years (4 papers, face to face;

4 papers, distance education)

English

English

HKU DEMS /

HKLA / CSU

HKU DEMS (Now HKU SPACE) / HKLA / CSU

CSU/ HKU DEMS (Now HKU SPACE)

1993-to date

  • Diploma in Library and Information Science / Bachelor of Arts (LIS), currently Bachelor of Applied Science (LIM)

Distance

3 years

English

HKU DEMS /

HKLA

CSU / HKU DEMS (Now HKU SPACE)

slide13

A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d)

1993-1996

  • Postgraduate Diploma in Librarianship

Distance

3 years

English

University of Wales /

British Council

1993-1997

  • Master in Library and Information Science

Part-time

2 years

(1/3 in HK

2/3 in Wisconsin)

English

University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee /

CUHK School of Continuing & Professional Studies

1995-1996

1996-1999

  • Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) (Course on library science: elective)
  • B.Ed. (Library and Information Studies)

Part of full-time programme

English

The University of Hong Kong. Faculty of Education

slide14

A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d)

1996-to date

  • Master of Applied Science (Library and Information Management)

Part-time

18 months

Distance

English

CSU / HKU SPACE

1996

1997

1998

  • B.Ed. conversion programme (Course on school library: elective)

Part-time

English

Hong Kong Baptist University. School of Continuing Education

slide15

A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d)

2001-to date

  • Higher Diploma for Library Technicians. Title changed to Higher Diploma in Library and Information Studies (2003); and to Higher Diploma in Library and Information Management (2008)

Full-time

3 years

(Face to face)

English

HKU SPACE

Community College

2000- to date

  • Diploma for Teacher Librarians (DipTL)

Part-time

English / Chinese

Education Manpower Bureau (Now Education Bureau) / HKU SPACE

a chronology of the courses after 1958 cont d

2004-to date

  • Higher Diploma in Library and Information Science

Full-time

3 years

(Face to face)

English

CUHK School of Professional and Continuing Education

A Chronology of the Courses After 1958(Cont’d)

2004-to date

  • Master of Science in Library and Information Management

Full-time /

Part-time

English

HKU Faculty of Education

2005- to date

  • Bachelor of Science in Information Management
  • (BSc(IM))

Full-time (2 years, face to face)

English

HKU Faculty of Education

lis education in the first decade of the 21st century

LIS Education in the First Decade of the 21st Century

The major development of LIS education in Hong Kong in the 21st century was the introduction of full-time local programmes at sub-degree level

hku space full time sub degree programmes

HKU SPACE Full-time Sub-Degree Programmes

Since 2001

The first institution set up the full-time LIS course, namely Higher Diploma for Library Technicians, in Hong Kong. It is

a three-year programme

library and information science core contents

generic skills including English and Chinese languages

inter-personal skills

bridging the gap between B.A. (LIS) programme and the Certificate Course for Library Assistants

slide19

HKU SPACE Full-time

Sub-Degree Programmes (Cont’d)

Structured in a modular mode allowing the students in-and-out flexibly.

The first year graduates would receive the Certificate

The second year graduates Advanced Certificate

The third year graduates the Higher Diploma

This course was the major breakthrough in library and information science education in Hong Kong.

slide20

HKU SPACE Full-time Sub-Degree Programmes

(Cont’d)

From 2005

Students of Advanced Level results can apply for 2 years programme

Students of HKCEE qualification are still required to take three year programme.

slide21

HKU SPACE Full-time Sub-Degree Programmes (Cont’d)

Higher Diploma in Library and Information Studies has developed into two themes:

Information Studies theme consists more course contents on librarianship

Information Management theme includes more subjects on information technology with the collaboration of Information Technology teaching unit

slide22

HKU SPACE Full-time Sub-Degree Programmes

(Cont’d)

Since Summer 2008

Programme title Higher Diploma in Library and Information Studieswas changed to Higher Diploma in Library and Information Management (LIM)

slide23

HKU SPACE Full-time Sub-Degree Programmes

Practicum

Throughout the development of the HDLIS / HDLIM course, practicum is always considered as an important part of the learning process. HKUSPACE Community College has a strong partnership with local school, academic, public and special libraries

slide24

Other Full-time Sub-Degree Programme

In 2004, the School of Continuing Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong also commenced its Higher Diploma programme in library studies

hku full time lis degree programmes

HKU Full-time LIS Degree Programmes

In September 2005, a full-time UGC funded programme was introduced as an add-on to the sub-degree programmes, that is for the Associate Degree or Higher Diploma holders.

The Master of Science in Library and Information Management is the first local full-time postgraduate degree offered by the Faculty of Education of the University of Hong Kong.

This programme can be studied part-time. Its first intake started from September 2004.

top up programmes for the lis higher diploma holders to study overseas programmes

Top-up Programmes for the LIS Higher Diploma Holders to Study Overseas Programmes

Both HKU SPACE and CUHK SCS have articulation arrangements with Northumbria University in UK for the holders of Higher Diploma in Library and Information Studies / Management to apply for its full-time bachelor degree in librarianship

slide27

Top-up Programmes for the LIS Higher Diploma Holders to Study Overseas Programmes

The HKU SPACE LIS Higher Diploma holders can apply for:

(a) the third year full-time BSc Information Management at Manchester Metropolitan University. This has to be studied in Manchester

(b) part-time degree course of Bachelor of Applied Science (LIM) of Charles Sturt University and

(c) the distance learning programme, BSc Librarianship, at Northumbria University. This can either be studied in HK by distance learning or in the UK.

current pt non degree lis programmes

Current PT Non-Degree LIS Programmes

Certificate Course for Library Assistants, Chinese and English (HKUSPACE & HKLA)

Up to the summer of 2008, 1,361 students were graduated

Together with CUHK SCS’s partnership between 1973-1996 (teaching in Chinese medium), over 2,000 students were graduated

Certificate Programme for Library Assistants (CUHK SCS)

Advanced Diploma Programme in Library Studies (CUHK SCS )

Advanced Professional Diploma Programme in Information Technology for Librarians (CUHK SCS )

Certificate for School Library Assistants (Caritas Francis Hsu Evening College & Hong Kong Teacher Librarian’s Association): ceased this year

Certificate / Diploma in Library and Information Studies (HKBU SCS): under-restructured

professional programme from overseas institutions

Professional Programme from Overseas Institutions

Charles Sturt University in 1990 collaborated with HKU DEMS and HKLA joined as the third partner

Those successfully completed the programme were awarded the Diploma in Librarianship by HKU DEMS / HKLA

Those who possess a degree recognized by Charles Sturt University can also obtain a Graduate Diploma of Applied Science (Library and Information Management)

Holders of this Graduate Diploma are eligible to apply for the Associateship of Australia Library Association (AALA, now Australia Library and Information Association: AALIA)

current professional programme from overseas institutions cont d

Current Professional Programme from Overseas Institutions(cont’d)

CSU Graduate Diploma in Applied Science (Library and Information Management) since 1990

The Graduate Diploma in Applied Science consists of 8 papers with teaching packages provided by CSU and 4 papers by distance mode with HKUSPACE local tutors.

CSU Master of Applied Science (Library and Information Management) since 1993

The Master programme requires 6 papers to be completed in 18 months to 24 months

Both programmes have teaching units instructed by CSU teaching staff in HK

Those are the most popular part-time postgraduate programmes in distance learning mode with local tutorship provided by HKUSPACE

slide31

Current Professional Programme from Overseas Institutions (cont’d)

From 2008, Northumbria University has started its distance learning programme entitled BSc in Librarianship for students in UK and the same course is available for the HDLIS / HDLIM graduates of HKUSPACE Community College by distance learning mode

other short courses operated by hku space and other institutions

Other Short Courses Operated by HKU SPACE and Other Institutions

Diversified topics were covered in individual short courses run by HKUSPACE:

Executive Certificate in Knowledge Management,

Executive Certificate in Digital Library / Information Centre Management

Executive Certificate in Records Management

Executive Certificate in Archives Management

There are other short courses on different topics offered at different institutions by face to face mode, correspondence or by Internet

graduates of the higher diploma of hku space

Graduates of the Higher Diploma of HKU SPACE

5 batches of graduates, a total of 302

The majority are working as paraprofessionals in different types of libraries and information centres, schools, book and publishing companies, as well as in academic institutions and commercial firms

graduates of the higher diploma of hku space cont d

Graduates of the Higher Diploma of HKU SPACE (cont’d)

Some continued to take part-time degree programmes

Others studied full-time in local universities

About 13-16% were able to get offer from the Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong to study a two-year full-time Bachelor of Science in Information Management.

A few students went overseas to study in the past few years

Around 65% of the graduates are now working in the library and information industries

slide35

Graduates of Certificate for Library Assistants

They find jobs as library assistants, general clerks, executive assistants in different kinds of libraries, schools, government offices, media, publishing and bookselling industries, computer firms, information communication technology industries, government or commercial enterprises and a variety of other institutions and organizations

slide36

Graduates of Higher Qualifications

Holders of higher qualifications such as Bachelor’s degree, Graduate Diploma and Master’s degree, etc. work as professionals in information sector and in different business setting in Hong Kong society.

Some have been very successful in their careers.

A few has reached very senior or top positions as directors or chief librarians.

history of in service training for teacher librarians

History of In-Service Training for Teacher-Librarians

1978 starts the nine-year universal and compulsory education in Hong Kong

From October 1979, a two day-release two-year training programme for teacher-librarians was organized by the Library Section of the Advisory Inspectorate of the Education Department jointly with the HKU DEMS

All government and aided secondary schools with 18 classes or more would be able to appoint a non-graduate teacher with a minimum of two years teaching experience to take charge of the school library on a full-time basis

history of in service training for teacher librarians cont d

History of In-Service Training for Teacher-Librarians(Cont’d)

In 1989, the INSTEP (In-service Teacher Education Programme) was launched:

Workshops were organized on school-based curriculum development to produce simple teaching materials and collections of resources to support project work and classroom activities

In 1992, a one-year part-time two day-release fresher course was introduced:

aimed to upgrade the knowledge and techniques of the serving teacher-librarians who had already completed the two-year in- service training course and with more than 5 years school library working experience.

history of in service training for teacher librarians cont d39

History of In-Service Training for Teacher-Librarians(Cont’d)

In 1997, the primary school has the equivalent provision of a teacher-librarian

In 2000, a formal credit-bearing training programme was organized by Hong Kong Teacher Librarians’ Association with HKUSPACE

current in service training for teacher librarians

Current In-Service Training for Teacher-Librarians

Diploma in Teacher Librarianship (DipTL)

is mainly initiated and financed by Education Bureau

was awarded to the Hong Kong educational institutions through tender process

the specifications of the tender varied from year to year

is now running by HKU SPACE and Faculty of Education, HKU

is an award bearing programme

an induction training intended for all the newly appointed teacher-librarians

split for primary and secondary school teacher-librarians in 2008 due to the forthcoming New Senior Secondary Curriculum in 2009/2010: preparation for the educational change to the so called “334” system

Up to the summer of 2008, about 360 teachers working in different schools were graduated

current in service training for teacher librarians cont d

Current In-Service Trainingfor Teacher-Librarians(Cont’d)

Short courses

Education Bureau has also taken the initiatives to arrange various topical short courses for the professional development of teacher-librarians

Short courses are also awarded by tender process

Two kinds of short courses

Non Award-bearing short courses

In 2008, 12 short courses of this kind on cataloguing, classification, subject analysis and promotion of information literacy programmes are organized

Ten of these short courses were awarded to HKUSPACE

Award bearing short courses

has been operating since 2006

have to be completed within 5 years

slide42

Current In-Service Training for Teacher-Librarians(Cont’d)

Chinese University of Hong Kong. The School of Continuing and Professional Studies

short courses

on school library operation and management

by distance learning

with the options to receive the learning materials by correspondence or by Internet

slide43

Difficulties of Keeping

Experienced Teacher-Librarians

Lack of promotional prospect

School principals seem to assign more teaching loads to the teacher-librarians

Now some school administrators try to replace the teacher-librarian with a HDLIS graduate though such a tendency should not be encouraged

future development a discussion

Education Level

Future Development: A Discussion

HKU is now accepting students for PHD programme, which is worked out on individual basis

We hope that more students are interested in applying for this doctorate programme in the future

future development a discussion cont d

Future Development: A Discussion (cont’ d)

Curriculum Content

We need to strengthen the existing programmes and enhance the curricula according to local needs

Overseas developed curricula should be modified to fit local education and training needs

Training of research skills, analytical skills, communication and managerial skills with flexibility and adaptability attitudes for all levels of library and information practitioners is still essential

future development a discussion cont d46

Future Development: A Discussion(cont’d)

Wider Coverage and More Electives

LIS students can be trained to gain competencies in working for different kinds of information-related environment by adding the following subjects as electives :

knowledge management

archives management

record management

museum management

web content management

publishing

future development a discussion cont d47

Future Development: A Discussion (cont’d)

Wider Coverage and More Electives

Legal, financial, business, health, geographic, political, economical, social and government information sources

Library and information services for special community group such as the disadvantaged and minority groups

IT and IM application, e.g. Internet technology such as web 2.0, Google search, open source integrated library system development

Strategic planning & operations planning

future development a discussion cont d48

Experiential Learning

A relatively short-term professionally supervised work experience offered as part of the school’s curriculum and taken during the academic sequence. The practicum is typically pursued in the same library or information agency for the total experience. Other than incidental expenses, the practicum student odes not receive a salary.

Future Development: A Discussion(cont’d)

Practicum

Many LIS programmes in Hong Kong such as HDLIS/HDLIM, DipTL, BSc in IM which require the students to attend placement

For some programmes, placement is better to tie to “specific learning objectives and are reflected upon throughout the semester in order to enrich appreciation of course”–(Jacoby and Associates, 1996)

future development a discussion cont d49

Future Development: A Discussion (Cont’d)

Needs for Hong Kong Teacher-Librarians

The specifications of the LIS programmes for teacher-librarians vary in each tender exercise by EDB annually

It has deterred the local academic institutions from developing a well structured and organized programme suitable for training teacher-librarians in Hong Kong educational environment

The programme needs to aim at supporting the new “334” education system in Hong Kong SAR

future development a discussion cont d50

Future Development: A Discussion (Cont’d)

Needs for Hong Kong Teacher-Librarians

More research should be carried out to collect the reflections of teacher-librarians and recognize their difficulties in library resources development and operation

Teacher-librarians’ personal attributes such as “confidence, [capability of] influencing, skills transfer, risk taking” to develop new services and ability to judge relevance, quality and reliability should be encouraged

Learning culture should be developed among the library and information professionals particularly teacher-librarians in this era encouraging life learning so that learning culture can be prosperous in the school environment

conclusion

Conclusion

LIS programmes for continuous development and improvement

Education programmes, courses, seminars and workshops should be deigned to support lifelong learning

They should timely offered as need arrives according to new trends of development

delivered at different times, in different modes to different kinds of students either face to face, by correspondence or on-line

slide52

Last But Not the Least

grow and prosper

strength to strength

year after year

valuable help

We wish the Hong Kong Library Association, our professional organization, continue to

grow and prosper, fromstrength to strengthyear after year,providevaluable helpas well asstrong supportto all of us in achieving our endeavours, goals and objectives in the many years to come!

strong support