A Half Century Panorama of Library and Information Science Education and Training in Hong Kong:From 1958 to 2008 and Beyond KAN Lai BingSenior Adviser HKU SPACE YU Ling LingCollege Senior Lecturer Community College, HKU SPACE
Library and Information Science (LIS)Education and Training in Hong KongBefore 1960 There were only a few librarians, and some were expatriates and some locals. Most of them were working in the library of the University of Hong Kong. It is difficult to trace information on education and training on librarianship before 1960
LIS Education and Trainingfrom 1960 A variety of short courses on library techniques, cataloguing and classification were organized by the Department of Extra-mural Studies of the University of Hong Kong (HKU DEMS) The Joint Certificate in Librarianship was offered from 1964 onwards It is still available yearly and in cooperation with the Hong Kong Library Association (HKLA)
LIS Education and Trainingfrom 1960 All the courses for LIS education were operated in the part-time and short term mode The target students were mainly the library practitioners at various level Most of the courses before 2001 were offered by the Department of Extramural Studies of the University of Hong Kong. In 1973, the CUHK Department of Extra-Mural Studies joined as a partner in the Certificate Course for Library Assistants and started to offer the course in Chinese medium.
LIS Education and TrainingBefore 2001 There were no full-time undergraduate and postgraduate courses in library science in the local universities The subject of library science was only included in education studies of HKU as a small part as short courses between 1989-1998.
LIS Education and Training Before 2001 In 1990s, HKU DEMS started partnership with CSU, then there was a sudden boom in the mid nineties A variety of distance learning programmes from the UK, US and Australia inevitably led to the over-supply of the courses in the same period Also the programmes were rather expensive With keen competition from the graduates returned from overseas, and many could not get a full-time employment in libraries so the number of applications dropped The distance learning programmes operated by University of Wales, Aberystwyth / British Council as well as the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee / Chinese University of Hong Kong were suspended Most of the courses organized in the 1990s were at professional level
A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 Year Course Title Delivery Mode Language Organizer 1960-1961 • Library Techniques I Part-time English HKU Dept of Extra-Mural Studies (HKU DEMS) 1961-1962 • Library Techniques II • Librarianship (圖書館學) Part-time Part-time English Cantonese (HKU DEMS) 1962-1963 • Introduction to Librarianship (圖書館學) • Advanced library techniques Part-time Part-time Cantonese English (HKU DEMS)
A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d) 1962-1964 • Library Cataloguing and Classification (圖書編目分類學) Part-time Cantonese (HKU DEMS) 1963-1964 1967 • Librarianship • Librarianship (圖書館學) • Librarianship (Second year) Part-time Part-time Part-time English Cantonese English (HKU DEMS) 1964-1967 • Joint Certificate in Librarianship Part-time Yearly (120 hours) English / occasional Cantonese (HKU DEMS) / HKLA
A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d) 1967- to date • Certificate Course for Library Assistants Part-time Yearly (120 hours) English class; occasionally also Chinese class HKU DEMS / HKLA 1973-1996 • Certificate Course for Library Assistants ( 圖書助理員文憑課程) Part-time Yearly (120 hours) English (HKU) Chinese (CUHK) HKU DEMS / HKLA / CUHK 1974-1976 • Advanced Reference & Bibliography Part-time English HKU DEMS 1967-1974 • Librarianship: Intermediate Part I. Courses preparing students for The Library Association (London)’s examination Part-time Yearly English HKU DEMS
A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d) 1975-1980 • Examination held in Hong Kong by the Australian Library Association English Australian Library Association 1977-1979 • Advanced Classification (高級分類學) Part-time 16 hours of lectures plus practical work English (1977/78) Cantonese (1978/79) HKU DEMS 1979- 1980 • Course for Teacher Librarians (part-time) (學校圖書館管理初級課程; 學校圖書館管理高級課程) 30 hours of lectures plus practical work English HKU DEMS / Education Dept
A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d) 1980-1989 • Diploma in Librarianship part-time 3 years (400 hrs) English HKU DEMS / HKLA 1989-1998 • In-service Teacher Education Programme (INSTEP) Part-time short courses of lectures plus practical workshops English The University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education / HKU DEMS (currently HKU SPACE) 1992 • Refresher Course Part-time one year course; day-release for teachers-librarians with 5-years of experience English HKU SPACE / Education Department
A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d) 1990-1993 1993- to date • Diploma in Librarianship / Graduate Diploma of Arts • Diploma in Librarianship/ Graduate Diploma of Arts: Library and Information Science (currently Graduate Diploma in Applied Science - Library and Information Management) part-time 3 years (400 hrs) 3 years (4 papers, face to face; 4 papers, distance education) English English HKU DEMS / HKLA / CSU HKU DEMS (Now HKU SPACE) / HKLA / CSU CSU/ HKU DEMS (Now HKU SPACE) 1993-to date • Diploma in Library and Information Science / Bachelor of Arts (LIS), currently Bachelor of Applied Science (LIM) Distance 3 years English HKU DEMS / HKLA CSU / HKU DEMS (Now HKU SPACE)
A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d) 1993-1996 • Postgraduate Diploma in Librarianship Distance 3 years English University of Wales / British Council 1993-1997 • Master in Library and Information Science Part-time 2 years (1/3 in HK 2/3 in Wisconsin) English University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee / CUHK School of Continuing & Professional Studies 1995-1996 1996-1999 • Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) (Course on library science: elective) • B.Ed. (Library and Information Studies) Part of full-time programme English The University of Hong Kong. Faculty of Education
A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d) 1996-to date • Master of Applied Science (Library and Information Management) Part-time 18 months Distance English CSU / HKU SPACE 1996 1997 1998 • B.Ed. conversion programme (Course on school library: elective) Part-time English Hong Kong Baptist University. School of Continuing Education
A Chronology of the Courses After 1958 (Cont’d) 2001-to date • Higher Diploma for Library Technicians. Title changed to Higher Diploma in Library and Information Studies (2003); and to Higher Diploma in Library and Information Management (2008) Full-time 3 years (Face to face) English HKU SPACE Community College 2000- to date • Diploma for Teacher Librarians (DipTL) Part-time English / Chinese Education Manpower Bureau (Now Education Bureau) / HKU SPACE
2004-to date • Higher Diploma in Library and Information Science Full-time 3 years (Face to face) English CUHK School of Professional and Continuing Education A Chronology of the Courses After 1958(Cont’d) 2004-to date • Master of Science in Library and Information Management Full-time / Part-time English HKU Faculty of Education 2005- to date • Bachelor of Science in Information Management • (BSc(IM)) Full-time (2 years, face to face) English HKU Faculty of Education
LIS Education in the First Decade of the 21st Century The major development of LIS education in Hong Kong in the 21st century was the introduction of full-time local programmes at sub-degree level
HKU SPACE Full-time Sub-Degree Programmes Since 2001 The first institution set up the full-time LIS course, namely Higher Diploma for Library Technicians, in Hong Kong. It is a three-year programme library and information science core contents generic skills including English and Chinese languages inter-personal skills bridging the gap between B.A. (LIS) programme and the Certificate Course for Library Assistants
HKU SPACE Full-time Sub-Degree Programmes (Cont’d) Structured in a modular mode allowing the students in-and-out flexibly. The first year graduates would receive the Certificate The second year graduates Advanced Certificate The third year graduates the Higher Diploma This course was the major breakthrough in library and information science education in Hong Kong.
HKU SPACE Full-time Sub-Degree Programmes (Cont’d) From 2005 Students of Advanced Level results can apply for 2 years programme Students of HKCEE qualification are still required to take three year programme.
HKU SPACE Full-time Sub-Degree Programmes (Cont’d) Higher Diploma in Library and Information Studies has developed into two themes: Information Studies theme consists more course contents on librarianship Information Management theme includes more subjects on information technology with the collaboration of Information Technology teaching unit
HKU SPACE Full-time Sub-Degree Programmes (Cont’d) Since Summer 2008 Programme title Higher Diploma in Library and Information Studieswas changed to Higher Diploma in Library and Information Management (LIM)
HKU SPACE Full-time Sub-Degree Programmes Practicum Throughout the development of the HDLIS / HDLIM course, practicum is always considered as an important part of the learning process. HKUSPACE Community College has a strong partnership with local school, academic, public and special libraries
Other Full-time Sub-Degree Programme In 2004, the School of Continuing Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong also commenced its Higher Diploma programme in library studies
HKU Full-time LIS Degree Programmes In September 2005, a full-time UGC funded programme was introduced as an add-on to the sub-degree programmes, that is for the Associate Degree or Higher Diploma holders. The Master of Science in Library and Information Management is the first local full-time postgraduate degree offered by the Faculty of Education of the University of Hong Kong. This programme can be studied part-time. Its first intake started from September 2004.
Top-up Programmes for the LIS Higher Diploma Holders to Study Overseas Programmes Both HKU SPACE and CUHK SCS have articulation arrangements with Northumbria University in UK for the holders of Higher Diploma in Library and Information Studies / Management to apply for its full-time bachelor degree in librarianship
Top-up Programmes for the LIS Higher Diploma Holders to Study Overseas Programmes The HKU SPACE LIS Higher Diploma holders can apply for: (a) the third year full-time BSc Information Management at Manchester Metropolitan University. This has to be studied in Manchester (b) part-time degree course of Bachelor of Applied Science (LIM) of Charles Sturt University and (c) the distance learning programme, BSc Librarianship, at Northumbria University. This can either be studied in HK by distance learning or in the UK.
Current PT Non-Degree LIS Programmes Certificate Course for Library Assistants, Chinese and English (HKUSPACE & HKLA) Up to the summer of 2008, 1,361 students were graduated Together with CUHK SCS’s partnership between 1973-1996 (teaching in Chinese medium), over 2,000 students were graduated Certificate Programme for Library Assistants (CUHK SCS) Advanced Diploma Programme in Library Studies (CUHK SCS ) Advanced Professional Diploma Programme in Information Technology for Librarians (CUHK SCS ) Certificate for School Library Assistants (Caritas Francis Hsu Evening College & Hong Kong Teacher Librarian’s Association): ceased this year Certificate / Diploma in Library and Information Studies (HKBU SCS): under-restructured
Professional Programme from Overseas Institutions Charles Sturt University in 1990 collaborated with HKU DEMS and HKLA joined as the third partner Those successfully completed the programme were awarded the Diploma in Librarianship by HKU DEMS / HKLA Those who possess a degree recognized by Charles Sturt University can also obtain a Graduate Diploma of Applied Science (Library and Information Management) Holders of this Graduate Diploma are eligible to apply for the Associateship of Australia Library Association (AALA, now Australia Library and Information Association: AALIA)
Current Professional Programme from Overseas Institutions(cont’d) CSU Graduate Diploma in Applied Science (Library and Information Management) since 1990 The Graduate Diploma in Applied Science consists of 8 papers with teaching packages provided by CSU and 4 papers by distance mode with HKUSPACE local tutors. CSU Master of Applied Science (Library and Information Management) since 1993 The Master programme requires 6 papers to be completed in 18 months to 24 months Both programmes have teaching units instructed by CSU teaching staff in HK Those are the most popular part-time postgraduate programmes in distance learning mode with local tutorship provided by HKUSPACE
Current Professional Programme from Overseas Institutions (cont’d) From 2008, Northumbria University has started its distance learning programme entitled BSc in Librarianship for students in UK and the same course is available for the HDLIS / HDLIM graduates of HKUSPACE Community College by distance learning mode
Other Short Courses Operated by HKU SPACE and Other Institutions Diversified topics were covered in individual short courses run by HKUSPACE: Executive Certificate in Knowledge Management, Executive Certificate in Digital Library / Information Centre Management Executive Certificate in Records Management Executive Certificate in Archives Management There are other short courses on different topics offered at different institutions by face to face mode, correspondence or by Internet
Graduates of the Higher Diploma of HKU SPACE 5 batches of graduates, a total of 302 The majority are working as paraprofessionals in different types of libraries and information centres, schools, book and publishing companies, as well as in academic institutions and commercial firms
Graduates of the Higher Diploma of HKU SPACE (cont’d) Some continued to take part-time degree programmes Others studied full-time in local universities About 13-16% were able to get offer from the Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong to study a two-year full-time Bachelor of Science in Information Management. A few students went overseas to study in the past few years Around 65% of the graduates are now working in the library and information industries
Graduates of Certificate for Library Assistants They find jobs as library assistants, general clerks, executive assistants in different kinds of libraries, schools, government offices, media, publishing and bookselling industries, computer firms, information communication technology industries, government or commercial enterprises and a variety of other institutions and organizations
Graduates of Higher Qualifications Holders of higher qualifications such as Bachelor’s degree, Graduate Diploma and Master’s degree, etc. work as professionals in information sector and in different business setting in Hong Kong society. Some have been very successful in their careers. A few has reached very senior or top positions as directors or chief librarians.
History of In-Service Training for Teacher-Librarians 1978 starts the nine-year universal and compulsory education in Hong Kong From October 1979, a two day-release two-year training programme for teacher-librarians was organized by the Library Section of the Advisory Inspectorate of the Education Department jointly with the HKU DEMS All government and aided secondary schools with 18 classes or more would be able to appoint a non-graduate teacher with a minimum of two years teaching experience to take charge of the school library on a full-time basis
History of In-Service Training for Teacher-Librarians(Cont’d) In 1989, the INSTEP (In-service Teacher Education Programme) was launched: Workshops were organized on school-based curriculum development to produce simple teaching materials and collections of resources to support project work and classroom activities In 1992, a one-year part-time two day-release fresher course was introduced: aimed to upgrade the knowledge and techniques of the serving teacher-librarians who had already completed the two-year in- service training course and with more than 5 years school library working experience.
History of In-Service Training for Teacher-Librarians(Cont’d) In 1997, the primary school has the equivalent provision of a teacher-librarian In 2000, a formal credit-bearing training programme was organized by Hong Kong Teacher Librarians’ Association with HKUSPACE
Current In-Service Training for Teacher-Librarians Diploma in Teacher Librarianship (DipTL) is mainly initiated and financed by Education Bureau was awarded to the Hong Kong educational institutions through tender process the specifications of the tender varied from year to year is now running by HKU SPACE and Faculty of Education, HKU is an award bearing programme an induction training intended for all the newly appointed teacher-librarians split for primary and secondary school teacher-librarians in 2008 due to the forthcoming New Senior Secondary Curriculum in 2009/2010: preparation for the educational change to the so called “334” system Up to the summer of 2008, about 360 teachers working in different schools were graduated
Current In-Service Trainingfor Teacher-Librarians(Cont’d) Short courses Education Bureau has also taken the initiatives to arrange various topical short courses for the professional development of teacher-librarians Short courses are also awarded by tender process Two kinds of short courses Non Award-bearing short courses In 2008, 12 short courses of this kind on cataloguing, classification, subject analysis and promotion of information literacy programmes are organized Ten of these short courses were awarded to HKUSPACE Award bearing short courses has been operating since 2006 have to be completed within 5 years
Current In-Service Training for Teacher-Librarians(Cont’d) Chinese University of Hong Kong. The School of Continuing and Professional Studies short courses on school library operation and management by distance learning with the options to receive the learning materials by correspondence or by Internet
Difficulties of Keeping Experienced Teacher-Librarians Lack of promotional prospect School principals seem to assign more teaching loads to the teacher-librarians Now some school administrators try to replace the teacher-librarian with a HDLIS graduate though such a tendency should not be encouraged
Education Level Future Development: A Discussion HKU is now accepting students for PHD programme, which is worked out on individual basis We hope that more students are interested in applying for this doctorate programme in the future
Future Development: A Discussion (cont’ d) Curriculum Content We need to strengthen the existing programmes and enhance the curricula according to local needs Overseas developed curricula should be modified to fit local education and training needs Training of research skills, analytical skills, communication and managerial skills with flexibility and adaptability attitudes for all levels of library and information practitioners is still essential
Future Development: A Discussion(cont’d) Wider Coverage and More Electives LIS students can be trained to gain competencies in working for different kinds of information-related environment by adding the following subjects as electives : knowledge management archives management record management museum management web content management publishing
Future Development: A Discussion (cont’d) Wider Coverage and More Electives Legal, financial, business, health, geographic, political, economical, social and government information sources Library and information services for special community group such as the disadvantaged and minority groups IT and IM application, e.g. Internet technology such as web 2.0, Google search, open source integrated library system development Strategic planning & operations planning
Experiential Learning A relatively short-term professionally supervised work experience offered as part of the school’s curriculum and taken during the academic sequence. The practicum is typically pursued in the same library or information agency for the total experience. Other than incidental expenses, the practicum student odes not receive a salary. Future Development: A Discussion(cont’d) Practicum Many LIS programmes in Hong Kong such as HDLIS/HDLIM, DipTL, BSc in IM which require the students to attend placement For some programmes, placement is better to tie to “specific learning objectives and are reflected upon throughout the semester in order to enrich appreciation of course”–(Jacoby and Associates, 1996)
Future Development: A Discussion (Cont’d) Needs for Hong Kong Teacher-Librarians The specifications of the LIS programmes for teacher-librarians vary in each tender exercise by EDB annually It has deterred the local academic institutions from developing a well structured and organized programme suitable for training teacher-librarians in Hong Kong educational environment The programme needs to aim at supporting the new “334” education system in Hong Kong SAR
Future Development: A Discussion (Cont’d) Needs for Hong Kong Teacher-Librarians More research should be carried out to collect the reflections of teacher-librarians and recognize their difficulties in library resources development and operation Teacher-librarians’ personal attributes such as “confidence, [capability of] influencing, skills transfer, risk taking” to develop new services and ability to judge relevance, quality and reliability should be encouraged Learning culture should be developed among the library and information professionals particularly teacher-librarians in this era encouraging life learning so that learning culture can be prosperous in the school environment