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MCH/Public Health Milestones Part VIII: 1965-1969 Greg R. Alexander, MPH, ScD Cathy Chadwick, MPH Donna J. Petersen, MHS, ScD MaryAnn Pass, MD, MPH Martha Slay, MPH Nicole Shumpert, BS Department of Maternal and Child Health The MCH Leadership Skills Training Institute

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mch public health milestones part viii 1965 1969
MCH/Public HealthMilestonesPart VIII: 1965-1969

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

slide2

Greg R. Alexander, MPH, ScDCathy Chadwick, MPH Donna J. Petersen, MHS, ScDMaryAnn Pass, MD, MPH Martha Slay, MPHNicole Shumpert, BS

Department of Maternal and Child Health

The MCH Leadership Skills Training Institute

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

acknowledgement
Acknowledgement

Supported by funding from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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1965

Medicaid and Medicare enacted

Title V Amended

Children and Youth Project

Neighborhood and Migrant Health Centers

Child Nutrition Act

Highway Safety Act

Reorganization of HEW

Title V authorizes infant care, family planning, and dental

EPSDT

School Lunch and Child Nutrition Act expanded

Children’s Bureau transferred to Office of Child

Development

Rubella vaccine licensed

1969

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

the 1960 s and 70 s
The 1960’s and 70’s
  • Tremendous expansion of federally funded programs for the poor and for children
  • Growth in public sector programs at the state and local levels, many providing direct services
  • Growth in disillusionment with government

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

war on poverty
War on Poverty
  • In his first State of the Union address, on January 8, 1964, President Johnson announced that his administration "today, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in America, and I urge this Congress and all Americans to join with me in that effort.“
  • His program called for a systematic effort in "chronically distressed areas" of the country, a youth employment ("job corps") plan, expansion of the food stamp and unemployment relief systems, and special aid to schools, libraries, hospitals, and nursing homes.

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

war on poverty president johnson and mrs johnson in kentucky
War on Poverty:President Johnson and Mrs. Johnson in Kentucky

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

1965 title xviii and xix of the social security act
1965: Title XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act
  • Medicare (Title XVIII) established to provide health insurance coverage to persons over age 65
  • Medicaid (Title XIX) established to provide health insurance coverage to low income women and children (also, aged, blind and disabled)

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

1965 title v amended p l 89 97
1965: Title V Amended, P.L. 89-97
  • The 1965 amendments (P.L. Law 89-97) amended Title V of the Social Security Act by providing comprehensive health care for children and youth, the so-called “C&Y Projects”.

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

c y projects
C & Y Projects
  • There was a growing realization that comprehensive care was needed for children and youth, particularly in low-income areas.
  • Legislation passed in 1965 (P.L 89-97), provided this care through Children and Youth (C & Y) projects.
    • A primary directive was to make these services accessible, available and appropriate to the identified low-income neighborhoods
    • The intent was to provide comprehensive health care to children and youth including health supervision, screening, medical care, nutrition, and social services.

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

comprehensive neighborhood health centers
Comprehensive Neighborhood Health Centers
  • Comprehensive Neighborhood Health Centers were created as part of the Partnership for Health Act and under the Office of Economic Opportunity.
  • The intent of these centers was to provide family-focused community health care.
  • In 1971, the program was transferred to the Public Health Service and was renamed the Community Health Centers Program

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

migrant health program
Migrant Health Program
  • The Migrant Health Program was established in 1965 to provide prenatal and infant care services to migrants, seasonal farm workers and their families

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

migrant health
Migrant Health

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

1966 child nutrition act
1966: Child Nutrition Act
  • The intent of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 was to ensure that children were provided with adequate food in order to promote better development and learning

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

1966 highway safety act and the national traffic and motor vehicle safety act
1966: Highway Safety Act and the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act
  • Authorized the federal government to set and regulate standards for motor vehicles and highways
  • Vehicles were built with new safety features, including head rests, energy-absorbing steering wheels, shatter-resistant windshields, and safety belts
  • By 1970, motor-vehicle-related death rates were decreasing

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

1967 department of hew reorganized
1967: Department of HEW Reorganized
  • A reorganization of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) was instituted by administrative order.
  • The health and welfare components of the Children’s Bureau were separated, with some of the responsibilities of the Children’s Bureau distributed among other agencies

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

1967 title v authorizes infant care family planning and dental care
1967: Title V Authorizes Infant Care, Family Planning and Dental Care
  • The Title V authorization of 1967 created three new medical project grants:
    • infant care (neonatal intensive care)
    • family planning
    • dental care

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

title xix amendments epsdt
Title XIX Amendments EPSDT
  • The Medicaid statute (Title XIX) was amended in 1967 to create the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program for needy children.
  • The purpose of EPSDT was to identify and diagnose health problems of indigent children though the provision of periodic physical and developmental examinations.
  • The program also provided funds for the treatment of illnesses and other health conditions

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

child receiving oral polio vaccine
Child receiving oral polio vaccine

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

1968 school lunch and child nutrition act expanded
1968: School Lunch and Child Nutrition Act Expanded
  • In 1968, Congress expanded the School Lunch and Child Nutrition Act.
  • A program was created to provide food for school-age children during the summer.
  • Additionally, a year-round program was initiated to provide food to low-income children, as well as children in day-care centers and Head Start programs.

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

1969 white house conference on food nutrition and health
1969: White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health
  • In 1969, President Nixon convened a White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health.
  • After this Conference, the Secretary of Agriculture established the Food and Nutrition Service in order to administer the federal food assistance programs.

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

president richard m nixon
President Richard M. Nixon

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

children s bureau transferred to office of child development
Children’s Bureau Transferred to Office of Child Development
  • The Children’s Bureau was disbanded in 1969.
  • Duties that had remained with the Children’s Bureau after the HEW reorganization, were transferred to the newly created Office of Child Development.
  • When this occurred, the health programs of the Children’s Bureau were transferred to the U.S. Public Health Services, in an agency now known as the Maternal and Child Health Bureau.

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

rubella vaccine licensed
Rubella Vaccine Licensed
  • The rubella vaccine was licensed in June, 1969.

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

child with rubella
Child with Rubella

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Maternal and Child Health/Public Health Milestones: 1965-1969

Photo Acknowledgements

Slide 6: During the 1960s, hundred of thousands of people took part in several different protest movements, including the civil rights movement, the anti-Vietnam War movement, the women's rights movement, the gay rights movement, and the environmental movement. These activists were attempting to change American society through demonstrations, marches, sit-ins, and teach-ins. Jason Laure/Woodfin Camp and Associates, Inc. www.encarta.com

Slide 8: On April 24, 1964, Lyndon and Lady Bird Johnson visited Inez, KY, and the property of Tommy Fletcher, a father of eight whose living conditions epitomized the squalor that characterized Appalachia for decades. On Fletcher’s porch, Johnson declared the War on Poverty. (AP photo) www.post-gazette.com

Slide 10: Physician and nurse examining elderly patient in home. 1963. CDC/Charles Farmer. www.cdc.gov

Slide 12: Courtesy of WHO and National Library of Medicine. www.nlm.nih.gov

Slide 14: Courtesy of National Library of Medicine. www.nlm.nih.gov

Slide 16: Courtesy of National Library of Medicine. www.nlm.nih.gov

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

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Maternal and Child Health/Public Health Milestones: 1965-1969

Photo Acknowledgements

Slide 18: Public Health Service photo.

Slide 20: Courtesy of National Library of Medicine. www.nlm.nih.gov

Slide 24: Nursery school. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine. www.nlm.nih.gov

Slide 26: Building a Better Life [Family Planning]. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine. www.nlm.nih.gov

Slide 28: www.cdc.gov . Health workers administering oral polio vaccine to child. 1963. CDC.

Slide 30: Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine. www.nlm.nih.gov

Slide 32: Richard M. Nixon. www.encarta.com . Richard M. Nixon, the twice-elected 37th president of the United States, was the only chief executive to resign from office. Shortly after becoming General Dwight D. Eisenhower's vice-presidential running mate in 1952, Nixon was suspected of misusing a fund. He is heard here giving his famous "Checkers" speech concerning this incident.

Slide 34: Mother and child in consultation with a physician. Courtesy of National Library of Medicine. www.nlm.nih.gov

Slide 36: Rash of rubella on child’s back. 1978. CDC

PHS Book: Mullan, F. Plagues and Politics: The Story of the U.S. Public Health Service. New York: Basic Books. 1989.

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham

credits
CREDITS
  • This work builds upon the earlier efforts of Dr. Allan C. Oglesby, Cindy Camberg, EdD, and Cathy Chadwick of the Maternal and Child Health Institute to Increase Leadership Skills Project, San Diego State University, and draws upon their Manual of the History and Philosophy of Maternal and Child Health as a foundation for this multi-volume series.

Department of Maternal and Child Health

University of Alabama at Birmingham