Veterinary Entomology 208 Fall 2010. Diptera (True Flies). Diptera (True Flies). Fly taxonomy. Traditional classification : Brachycera (‘short horn’) fat-bodied flies short antennae Examples: horse flies, house flies, etc. Nematocera (‘thread horn’) slender-bodied flies
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Veterinary Entomology 208 Fall 2010 Diptera (True Flies) Diptera (True Flies)
Fly taxonomy Traditional classification: • Brachycera(‘short horn’) • fat-bodied flies • short antennae • Examples: horse flies, house flies, etc. • Nematocera(‘thread horn’) • slender-bodied flies • long, slender antennae • Examples: gnats, mosquitoes, crane flies
Brachycera Adults: taxa to know in key • Hippoboscidae (keds) • Tabanidae (horse flies, deer flies) • ‘horse fly’ • ‘deer fly’ • Calliphoridae • Cochliomyia sp. • ‘calliphorid spp.’ • Muscidae • Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly) • Haematobia irritans (horn fly) • Musca domestica (house fly) • Musca autumnalis (face fly)
Key characters and taxa Hippoboscidae • wings absent • tick-like in appearance www.dkimages.com
Key characters and taxa Antennae • aristate • stylate (Tabanidae)
Tabanidae horse fly deer fly (no specimens on exam)
spiracle bristle row hypopleuron Key characters and taxa Hypopleural bristles • present (Calliphoridae) • absent (Muscidae)
Calliphoridae Cochliomyia sp. calliphorid spp.
Key characters and taxa Mouthparts • piercing • sponging (Musca)
palps palps long palps short Stomoxys calcitrans Haematobia irritans
parafrontal area intermediately wide very wide or very narrow Musca domestica Musca autumnalis
Brachycera Larvae: taxa to know in key • Oestridae (botflies, cattle grubs) • Gasterophilus sp. (horse bots) • Hypoderma sp. (cattle grubs) • Calliphoridae (blowflies, screwworms) • Cochliomyiahominivorax (primary screwworm) • ‘calliphorid spp.’ (blowflies) • Muscidae (house fly, stable fly, horn fly, face fly) • Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly) • Haematobia irritans (horn fly) • Musca domestica (house fly) • Musca autumnalis (face fly)
larvae shape large and robust small and slender other Brachycera Oestridae
Oestridae spines small or absent heavy spines Gasterophilus sp. Hypoderma sp.
slits of posterior spiracles sinuous (squiggly) straight Calliphoridae Muscidae
Calliphoridae Posterior tracheal trunks unpigmented, not visible Posterior tracheal trunks pigmented, visible Cochliomyia hominivorax calliphorid sp.
Muscidae spiracles proximate, button laterally located spiracles widely separated, button centrally located Stomoxys calcitrans other Muscidae
Muscidae spiracle with outer margin dark, ring-like entire spiracle dark, without well-defined, dark margin other Muscidae Musca domestica
Muscidae 15 mm 7 mm Haematobia irritans Musca autumnalis
Culicidae adults Taxa to know in key to adult females Aedes Anopheles Culex Culiseta Psorophora Toxorhynchites
as long as proboscis short palp length other Culicidae Anopheles
slender and curved ventrad apically same diameter throughout, straight proboscis shape other Culicidae Toxorhynchites
bristles spiracular bristles present, post-spiracular bristles present spiracular bristles present, post spiracular bristles absent Psorophora Culiseta
bristles spiracular bristles absent, post-spiracular bristles present spiracular bristles absent, post-spiracular bristles absent Aedes Culex
Culicidae larvae Taxa to know in key to larvae Aedes Anopheles Culex Culiseta Psorophora
absent present air tube other Culicidae Anopheles
air tube pecten • comb-like arrangement of setae • positioned near base of tube • all species included in lab have pecten
basal tuft absent, other tufts present basal tuft present, other tufts absent air tube setal tufts Culesita Culex
plate complete as a ring around segment plate not complete as a ring around segment, forming ‘saddle’ anal segment Aedes Psorophora