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The Constitution. Before the Constitution. Second Continental Congress Governed America during the Revolutionary War Consisted of delegates from each state Delegates voted to make national policies and decisions but states retained autonomy

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before the constitution
Before the Constitution
  • Second Continental Congress
    • Governed America during the Revolutionary War
    • Consisted of delegates from each state
    • Delegates voted to make national policies and decisions but states retained autonomy
      • Autonomy: The state of retaining independence and/or freedom
    • Established the system used for the Articles of Confederation
before the constitution1
Before the Constitution
  • Articles of Confederation
    • Drafted during the war (1777)
    • Ratified on March 1, 1781
    • First official government of the United States
    • Contained 13 articles
      • Outlined the style and structure of government
    • Established America as a confederacy
before the constitution2
Before the Constitution
  • Failures of the Articles of Confederation
    • No chief executive
      • All decisions were made by a vote of the states
      • Created divisions on who was in charge
    • Unicameral Congress
      • Each state had one vote
      • 9 of 13 states had to approve any change
      • Large states felt the one-vote system did not accurately represent the people as a whole
      • Small states loved the one-vote system because it made them equal to large states
before the constitution3
Before the Constitution
  • Failures of the Articles of Confederation
    • No national court system
      • Each state established its own laws and court system
    • Financial Crisis
      • No national currency
        • Each state used a different form of currency
        • Merchants accepted only certain forms of money, which led to inflation
      • No power to levy taxes or collect money
      • Unable to pay debts from war
        • Forced each state to pay individually, none were able to
before the constitution4
Before the Constitution
  • Shays’ Rebellion – 1786-87
    • War left many poor and unable to pay debts
    • Courts have rejected petitions to help relieve farmers of their debts
    • Unable to pay debts, farmers and ex-soldiers storm courthouses
    • Army puts down rebellion
    • Rebellion shows that the government did not work because of its inability to handle debt and ensure the civil rights of its citizens
creating the constitution
Creating the Constitution
  • Annapolis Convention
    • Met in September 1786
    • Delegates met to discuss changes to the Articles of Confederation
    • Lack of attendance led to another convention to be held in Philadelphia
    • Delegates agreed that major changes were needed and not everyone should be invited to Philly
creating the constitution1
Creating the Constitution
  • Philadelphia Convention
    • May 1787-September 1787
    • 12 states attend
      • Rhode Island does not
    • 55 delegates attend, 39 will sign Constitution
    • James Madison
      • “Father of the Constitution”
      • Journals give us insights to the meetings, arguments, and details of convention
creating the constitution2
Creating the Constitution
  • The Constitution
    • Replaced the Articles of Confederation
    • Document that outlines the structure and functions of our government
    • Produced by the Philadelphia Convention
    • Known as the “Supreme Law of the Land”
    • 3 Parts
      • Preamble
      • Articles
      • Amendments
preamble
Preamble
  • “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”
  • States power comes from the consent of the people
  • Abolishes confederacy and creates a nation of states
articles
Articles
  • 7 Articles
  • Each outlines a specific function or duty
    • Article 1: Legislative Branch
      • Elastic Clause: Gives Congress the power to pass all laws “necessary and proper” to the function of govt.
    • Article 2: Executive Branch
    • Article 3: Judicial Branch
    • Article 4: State Relations
    • Article 5: Amending Process
    • Article 6: National Supremacy
      • States that national laws are the highest in the land
    • Article 7: Ratification Process of Constitution
amendments
Amendments
  • Amendments are changes to the Constitution
  • 27 amendments total
  • Bill of Rights
    • First 10 amendments
    • Protect our basic rights
    • Added immediately to Constitution
  • How does an amendment happen?
    • 2/3 of both houses of Congress propose and pass amendment or 2/3 of states call for a convention
    • ¾ of the states ratify amendment
structure of government
Structure of Government
  • Federalism
    • Shared power between the national and state governments
    • National Powers
      • Print money, regulate trade, make treaties, declare war, provide military, establish post offices
    • State Powers
      • Issue licenses, conduct elections, establish local governments, protect health and safety
    • Concurrent (shared) Powers
      • Collect taxes, build roads, borrow money, establish courts, regulate banks
structure of government1
Structure of Government
  • Executive Branch
    • Execute or carry out laws
    • President, Vice President, Cabinet
    • President
      • Must be at least 35 years old, natural born US citizen, established residency for 14 years, not committed high crimes
      • Chief executive of the nation
      • Commander of military
      • Signs bills into law
      • Current President: Barack Obama
structure of government2
Structure of Government
  • Legislative Branch
    • Makes Laws
    • 2 Houses of Congress
    • House of Representatives
      • Led by Speaker of House (top person from the majority party)
        • Current Speaker of House: John Boehner
      • 435 total representatives
        • Based on population of State
        • Utah has four: Rob Bishop, Chris Stewart, Jim Matheson, Jason Chaffetz
      • Representatives
        • 25 years old, US citizen, citizen of state they represent
      • Lower house of Congress
structure of government3
Structure of Government
  • Legislative Branch
    • Senate
      • Led by Vice President
        • Current Vice President: Joe Biden
      • When VP is not available, led by president pro tempore
        • Current PPT: Patrick Leahy
      • 100 Senators, 2 from each state
        • Utah Senators: Orrin Hatch, Mike Lee
      • Requirements
        • 30 years of age, citizen of US, resident of state
      • Upper house of Congress
structure of government4
Structure of Government
  • Judicial Branch
    • Interpret Laws
    • Supreme Court and Federal Court system
    • Supreme Court is the highest and last resort
    • 9 justices on Supreme Court
      • Chief Justice: John Roberts
      • President nominates, Senate confirms justices
structure of government5
Structure of Government
  • Separation of Powers
    • Each branch has specific powers that only it is allowed to do
  • Checks and Balances
    • Each branch can “check” each other to make sure no one abuses its power or gets too greedy
structure of government6
Structure of Government
  • Slavery
    • 2 issues
      • Economic Issue
        • South was unable to quit slavery because it could not pay them
        • North wanted to abolish slavery
        • Compromise: Import slaves until 1807, after that, no more and slaves had to be bred
      • Representational Issue
        • South wanted slaves counted in census for more representation in the House of Representatives
        • 3/5 Compromise: 60% of the state’s slave population counted
ratifying constitution
Ratifying Constitution
  • Philadelphia Convention
    • Ratified on Sept. 17, 1787
    • Went to states for adoption
  • States Adopt
    • 11 states immediately adopt
    • Constitution goes into effect on March 4, 1789
    • Eventually all 13 states adopt it
constitution assignment
Constitution Assignment
  • You are to write a 1 page Constitution
  • You are writing a constitution for our classroom to outline expectations, goals, etc.
  • You must have the following:
    • Preamble: State the need for your Constitution
      • 2-3 sentences
    • Articles: 3 articles (paragraphs)
      • Article 1 – Expectations of the teacher
      • Article 2 – Expectations of the student
      • Article 3 – Guidelines/Rules for the classroom
    • Amendments: 5
      • Amendments must change current classroom rules that I have
      • Refer to my disclosure for help or the VHS policy manual
    • Due, Monday, October 7th