Policy patterns and regimes: analysis of European waste policies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Policy patterns and regimes: analysis of European waste policies

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  1. Policy patterns and regimes: analysis of European waste policies Preliminary results from the ESTO waste project commissioned by IPTS GIN conference: A clear route to Sustainability? July 2-6, 2006 Ulrik Jørgensen, professor Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management Technical University of Denmark

  2. Background • waste prevention policies and their impact on innovation • inter-relations between innovation and waste creation • waste policies are not standing alone, other areas of policy may have adverse effects • implementation is often more important for impacts than the policy objectives as such • difficulties in singling out a determined relationship between policy as input and impacts as output • innovation is a broad and weakly defined field of activities

  3. Products/Materials Waste Strict avoidance Reduction at source Product re-use Recycling Incineration Incineration Landfilling Waste Prevention Waste Minimisation Waste disposal Waste prevention – the hierarchy • OECD definitions also used by the EC • Critical boundary between re-use and recycling: “Product re-use involves the multiple use of a product in its original form, for its original purpose or for an alternative, with or without reconditioning”

  4. Policy analysis rationalized - DPSIR • DPSIR = Drivers, Pressure, State, Impact, Response • indicator model used by a.o. the European Environment Agency • the P-S-I part form the outset and are typically covered by some technical indicators • whereas the D-R part of the model is a rational projection onto policy and economy with limited empirical support • difficult to produce relevant indicators improving and supporting policies

  5. Policy patterns • coordinated policies, not single measures have impacts • coherent policies support the overall objectives, conflicting policies weakens results • policy styles at national or sector level, choice of instruments, flexibility, timing, consensus • model arguments dominate economic instruments but have weak empirical foundation • sustained effort and long term objectives are important • institutional contexts, structure of actors and their relations, competence of regulating bodies form the core

  6. Policy instruments 1 • Policies directed towards materials use and design: • charges on virgin resource, energy use • • product or material bans • • announced policies for phasing out, objectives, and priorities • Policies directed towards the resulting waste stream: • charges for by-product or waste streams from production • mandatory waste handling and management procedures • conditions for environmental licence to operate (like IPPC) • voluntary agreements with government recognition • charges and taxes on waste streams

  7. Policy instruments 2 • Policies directed towards product quality: • design prescriptions and eco-design (product-service-systems) • producer responsibility legally defined and take-back • support and grants for cleaner technologies, building knowledge, research • creation of test and up-scaling facilities for complex technologies • energy labeling and other forms of mandatory or voluntary schemes • incentives for use of environmental management systems • information support and information campaigns • prescriptions for green (public) procurement and purchasing

  8. Policy regimes • the institutional network of knowledge production and policy implementation • environmental objects and their translation • the institutional setup defines the organization, the interaction, and the responsibilities for implementation • professional knowledge involved in defining the objects of regulation and the ‘street level’ practices and routines • institutional frameworks create stability and replication of policy measures (frozen styles)

  9. Innovations and policy influence • innovation refers to a variety of settings • companies are often seen as most important • environmental innovations include new perspectives on product-service systems and supply chains • integration of new actors important • waste has low priority and is often not visible in research and design • innovation policies’ dominant focus is on competitiveness • continued re-engineering and domestication is as important

  10. Case selected for analysis - focus • Product – Electronics: producer responsibility, and take back (RoHS, WEEE) – car take back policies • Material – PVC: use and substitution and additives – including policy controversies and stakeholder activities • Waste stream – Packaging materials: bottles, plastic bags, etc. – take back and recycling options • Consumption – Textile products: including design policies and influencing product chains • Sector – Building materials: including the problems of redefining waste streams • fossil fuels and waste chemical production not included

  11. PVC – an ongoing controversy • dioxin and free chlorine staging the controversy • search for substitution to reach to a ban of PVC or at least of certain uses, still no overall policy defined • new environmental objects: heavy metals in stabilizers, phthalates as plasticizers, bromide in flame retardants • incineration sets a separate problem, acidification • strong lobbying activity from industry due to chlorine as by-product and PVC’s multifunctional use • weak policies and lots of diverse innovations, substitution, decomposition, additives, re-use

  12. Electronics – regulatory diversity • electronics waste a new problem, no longer ‘garden industry’, growth, and pervasive character of integration • 4% of household waste, but triple growth • RoHS regulating the use of heavy metals and additives etc. • WEEE defining a producer responsibility, though only for the handling of waste • shipment rules, ban on export of waste (Basel convention) • sustained policy, traditional regulation most efficient, producer responsibility not for design, but for covering costs

  13. Textiles, packaging, and building materials • textiles: focus on dyes, chemicals, pesticides, eco-design, labeling, but little on waste and consumption • waste policies have only limited impacts on a major part of the products for consumption • packaging: recycling was influential for especially bottles for a period of time, but weakening, PVC almost phased out, some reduction based on waste charges • building materials: redefinition of waste has major impacts supported by waste charges, growing problems with plastics, composite materials etc. lack of focus on LCA in building constructions and eco-design in construction