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Chapter 4:. The Land and Its Early People. History. Written : began in Africa about 6000 years ago. Pre-history : before written records Hieroglyphics : early writing that used pictures and symbols Oral : stories or narratives passed down from older generations to younger generations.

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chapter 4
Chapter 4:

The Land and Its Early People

  • Written: began in Africa about 6000 years ago.
    • Pre-history: before written records
      • Hieroglyphics: early writing that used pictures and symbols
  • Oral: stories or narratives passed down from older generations to younger generations.
      • Traditions, beliefs, folklore,…
      • Thanksgiving table
      • Crazy Uncle
  • Culture: describes the beliefs, traditions, music, art and social institutions of a group of people,
  • Primary Source: Original account
      • Letters, diaries, speeches, autobiographies, newspaper reports, gov’t documents, business records, oral accounts, old photos, buildings, tools, clothing, art, grave markers…
        • Hernando De Soto (1540)…one of the 1st Europeans to WRITE eyewitness accounts about Indians
  • Secondary Sources: second hand accounts
      • Written by people who did not witness events
      • Biographies, text books, maps, encyclopedias…
  • Hypothesis: preliminary conclusion
  • B.C.: Before Christ
  • A.D.: Anno Domini
  • Circa: around or approximately
early america
Early America

Christopher Columbus

  • Thought he was in the East Indies— ”Indians”
    • Believed to have come from Asia 30,000 years earlier.
  • New World:
    • North AND South America

Nina, Pinta, and the Santa Maria

archaeologists v anthropologists
Archaeologists v. Anthropologists
  • Archaeologists: study the artifacts and fossils to learn about the life and people of early times.
  • Anthropologists: study the development of human culture…”Paint us a picture of the times.”
      • Carbon 14 Testing: used to help date artifacts and fossils
        • Organic matter only…plants and animals
        • Dr. W.F. Libby
land bridge
Land Bridge

During the Ice Age, the sea level was much lower than today…forming a “Land Bridge” between Asia and North America.

  • Beringia: land between present day Alaska and Siberia (1300 miles wide)
    • Nomadic tribes followed the animal herds across this bridge becoming the Early Indian cultures of America.
      • 4x length of Georgia
      • P. 51
indian cultures pawm p 57 cause and effect
Indian Cultures-PAWMp. 57 “Cause and Effect”

4 Indian Cultures (Tribes)

  • Paleo: 10,000 years ago
  • Archaic: 8000BC to 1000BC
    • Early , Middle, Late
  • Woodland: 1000BC to 1000AD
  • Mississippian: 700AD to 1600AD
  • Earliest known Indian culture.
    • Paleolithic Age (Very old)
  • Tools and weapons made mostly of stone
    • Atlatl: spear throwing device
  • Nomadic: roaming hunters who followed animals for food.
      • Mammoths, bison, sloth…
      • Hunting methods included chasing off cliffs (Bones)
  • Paleo Sites in Georgia:
    • Flint, Savannah, Ocmulgee

Early (8000-5000BC)

  • The larger game slowly became extinct forcing the Indians to hunt smaller animals.
    • Deer, rabbit, turkey, fish…
    • Spears and points became smaller
  • Archeologists found weapons made of rock not found in GA.
    • Trade or Migration
  • Fall: lived where berries, nuts fruits were available
  • Summer: good fishing locations
  • Spring & Winter: migrated for other food sources.

Middle (5000-4000BC)

  • As areas grew drier and warmer, coastlines and riverbeds became exposed— mussels, clams, and shellfish.
    • Middens: heaps/piles of shells
  • Hooks made of animal bone for fishing
  • Longer/lighter spears traveled farther and more accurate—no longer needed to hunt as often.
  • Small groups begin to join together outside the family structure

Late (4000-1000BC)

  • Discovery of grooved axe with wooden handle.
    • Excavations: archeological diggings
  • Horticulture: science of growing plants and trees
      • Saving seeds
  • Stallings Island: mound of mussel and clam shells…burial grounds, fire hearths, pipes, axes and shell beads
  • Villages were becoming more permanent.

Stallings Island Excavation Site

  • One of the greatest contributions the Archaic Indians made to advancement of civilization.
    • Sherds: bits of broken pottery
  • Allowed for the storing and preservation of food, causing Indians to stay in one place longer!

Broken Pottery with engravings

  • Several families or camps would come together to form TRIBES:
      • A group of people who share a common ancestry, name, and way of life
  • Bow and Arrow: made of stone, shark teeth and antlers.
  • Pottery made to last longer
    • Mixed with sand and dried in sun
  • Evidence of religious ceremonies
    • Burial Mounds
  • Rock Eagle Mound: made of quartz in the shape of a bird.
    • No Explanation…theory.
    • Effigy: image of person or animal

Temple Mound Period

  • Highest prehistoric civilization in Georgia
  • First discovered villages along the Mississippi River
    • Villages, towns, and farms
    • Practiced a religion
  • Evidence of Civilization:
      • Grow most of their food
      • Crop rotation- plant in different fields (replenish nutrients)
      • Jewelry, tattoos, hair styles, elaborate clothes
      • Settlements with protective fences and moats
        • Palisade: wall made of tall posts
        • Wattle and Daub: structure made of wood and clay
      • Religious centers to village
  • DISAPPEARED without a trace…Disease, enemies…?
  • Ocmulgee National Monument:
    • Ceremonial lodge built of red clay
    • Used for religious and village meetings
  • Etowah Indian Mounds:
    • 7 pyramid-shaped mounds
    • Graves and bodies found
    • Carved marble statues
  • Kolomoki Indian Mounds:
    • 300 acres with one mound, 50 feet high, 320 feet long
    • Many workers using primitive tools over a long period of time.

Etowah Indian Mounds

cherokee creek confederacy
Cherokee & Creek Confederacy
  • Confederacy: Nation
      • 14 Tribes of with similar language and way of living
      • Called “Creek” by the Europeans because that is where they were found to be living.
    • Chiefdom: Social and political institution
        • Ruled by a priest/chief
        • One to many villages
      • Coweta: War town (Columbus)
        • Tribal war decisions were made here
      • Cusseta: Peace town (Ft. Benning)
        • Tribal peace plans and treaties were discussed here
      • Took on some of the European lifestyles
        • GOVERNMENT
creek and cherokee lifestyles
Creek and Cherokee Lifestyles
  • Villages on high banks
    • Rich soil
    • Water
    • Defensive
    • Fish
  • Houses
  • Religious Ceremonies
  • Games & Recreation

Swimmer: Cherokee medicine man who related his “stories” to anthropologists into written history.

indian belief systems
Indian Belief Systems
  • Gods and spirits
  • Cleanse themselves
      • In and Out
  • Believed in an Afterlife:
    • Brave warriors and faithful women rewarded
    • Cowards and thieves punished
this world
“This World”
  • Believed they were on an island
    • Hung from the sky by 4 cords
      • East-Red (life and success)
      • West-Black (death)
      • North-Blue (cold, trouble, defeat)
      • South-White (warmth, happiness, peace)
  • Each tribe thought it to be the center of the universe
  • Orderly and predictable
    • Did not like change
  • Illness and bad luck came to those who misbehaved.
laws and ceremonies
Laws and ceremonies
  • Purification of one’s self:
    • Inside: black tea
    • Outside: sweat house/cold stream
  • Green Corn Ceremony:
    • To give thanks and to forgive wrongs done to them… Murder was not forgiven!
  • Law of Retaliation (Most Important):
    • A person harmed has the right to harm the first in a similar manner…
        • “An eye for an eye”
upper world v under world
“Upper World v. Under World”
  • Upper World:
    • Order and expectation
    • Pure
    • Sky vault
      • Controlled day/night
  • Under World:
    • Disorder and change
    • Below the water
    • Cannibals, ghosts and witches
gods and spirits
Gods and Spirits



gods and spirits1
Sun (Female):

Power of night and day

Life and breath

Kind hearted and watched over this world

Moon (Male):

Sun’s brother

Rain and fertility

Kanati (Male):

“Red man who lived in the sky vault in the East”

Voice of thunder

Long Man (Male):


Head rested in the hills and feet in the lowlands

Lesser Beings:


Treated with honor to avoid spread of disease

The Immortals:


Lived in the mountains

Cherokee legend: drove away attacking tribes

Little People:

Short with long hair



Spirits that would cause illness and disease

Murdered spirits stay until avenged

Gods and Spirits
  • Deer: greatest 4-footed animal
  • Birds: Sacred as they came in contact with Upper World
    • Eagle: Peace and order
    • Falcon: Eyesight
    • Turkey Buzzard: Healing
    • Turkey/Red-Bellied Woodpecker: War
  • Rattlesnake:
    • Meat: fierce
    • Rattles: scare enemies
    • Oil: sore joints
    • Fangs: draw blood/healing
    • Bones: necklaces
  • Owl: a witch due to humanlike eyes

“Smarter than the average bear!”

  • Believed to be once a man who failed to avenge wrongs done to his people.
  • Indians asked all animals for forgiveness EXCEPT for the bear, because they were men being punished and did not deserve Indian respect!
  • Go CHIEFS—BEAT the Grizzlies!!!
  • Friends to humans
  • Corn (MAIZE):
    • Most important
  • Plants used in ceremony and healing:
      • Bear Grass Root: snakebites and rheumatism
      • Ginseng: shortness of breath/stop bleeding
      • Angelica Root: back pain
      • Spicebush tea: cleaned blood
      • TABACCO: special plant used in ceremonial purposes asking for blessings from the Gods.
        • Pure, white smoke rose to the Upper World
indian society
Indian Society
  • Mother-centered Family Systems:
    • Women at the center of clans (Related by blood)
    • Women had a voice in anything that affected the tribe
  • Child is only related by blood to its mother
    • Mother’s brothers (uncles) acted as the father figure
indian government
Indian Government
  • Clan: who could marry; punish wrongs
  • Village: headman and elders made up council
    • Advised tribal chief
  • Tribe: some had 2 chiefs (War & Peace)
    • Many villages
  • Nation or Confederacy
    • Many tribes
indian words of georgia
Indian Words of Georgia
  • Dahlonega: Yellow Money (Cherokee)
  • Chickamauga: sluggish or dead water
  • Ocmulgee: babbling water (Cherokee)
  • Chatooga: He has crossed the river and come out on the other side
  • Tallulah: awesome (Cherokee)
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credits 2
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