kagan ch 20 pp 622 628 n.
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Kagan, Ch. 20, pp. 622-628. Conservative Governments: The Domestic Political Order. Conservatism. General beliefs Obedience to political authority (legitimate monarchy) Organized religion was crucial to social order (established churches) Landed aristocracies Hated revolutionary upheavals

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conservatism
Conservatism
  • General beliefs
    • Obedience to political authority (legitimate monarchy)
    • Organized religion was crucial to social order (established churches)
    • Landed aristocracies
    • Hated revolutionary upheavals
    • Unwilling to accept civil liberties, representative governments (constitutions), or nationalistic aspirations
    • State> individual – must be ordered and organized (tradition = best organizer)
the conservatives
The Conservatives
  • Specifically
    • France: Louis XVIII: keep the throne
    • England: Tory conservatives (pro Church and king) – preserve Old England
    • Metternich: leading Germany, Austria, Italy, Central Europe: Habsburg supremacy***
    • Russia: Alexander I --- too liberal for Met. – can he be converted?
maintaining habsburg dominance
Maintaining Habsburg Dominance
  • Secure dominance in
    • Austrian Empire
    • Italy
    • German Confederation (now 39 states)
  • Why must these minorities not be allowed to develop constitutions?
prussian reform defeated
Prussian Reform Defeated
  • Frederick William III, Prussia
    • 1817 promised constitution BUT…created Council of State INSTEAD
    • 1819 ultra-conservatives put in charge of military
    • 1823 est. 8 provincial diets
      • dominated by Junkers
      • acted in advisory role only
  • Monarchy, army and Junkers revive old alliances to stave off nationalists as well as liberals
repression in great britain
Repression in Great Britain
  • Conservative control (Tories) in Great Britain under Lord Liverpool
    • Post war economic depression – wages fall
    • Corn Laws (1815)
      • Prohibited importation of foreign grain unless domestic price rose above a certain levels – why is this problematic?
    • 1816 income tax replaced with sales tax
    • Increased movement to suspend Poor Laws
  • Citizens call for Parliamentary reform (Cobbett, Cartwright, Hunt)
    • 1817 Coercion Acts suspend habeas corpus, cracked down of “seditious gatherings”
    • 1819 “Peterloo Massacre” St. Peter’s Field – 80,000 Manchester
      • Pro universal suffrage, vs. Corn Laws – Soldiers fire! – 11 die
      • (typical of conservative Lord Liverpool)
    • 1819 Six Acts = repressive measures vs. radicals
    • 1819, Cato Street Conspiracy
bourbon restoration repression
Bourbon Restoration (Repression)
  • Louis XVIII, 1814-1824
    • accepted Napoleonic Code; didn’t revoke property
    • The Charter =
      • bicameral legislature: Chamber of Peers (appointed) & Chamber of Deputies (elected)
    • White Terror
    • 1820 nephew (Duke de Berri) assassinated
  • Charles X (aka Count of Artois), 1824-1830
    • total absolutist, although promises 1827 to uphold the principle of ministerial responsibility
congress of vienna
Congress of Vienna
  • Quadruple and then Quintuple Alliances
    • maintain peace and balance of power in Europe
  • How would this be done?
    • Principle of Legitimacy
    • Principle of Intervention
    • Holy Alliance? – not so much BUT
  • Big Five would “interfere” in international disputes prior to Revolutions of 1848
congress of vienna congress system
Congress of Vienna – Congress System
  • After Vienna, no one acts without consent
  • Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818)
    • Allies withdraw from France
    • France enters “concert of Europe”
  • Congress of Troppau (1820)
    • Collective security vs. revolution
    • Action vs. Spain / Naples (Eng vs. b/c of colonies!!!)
    • Upholds Principles of Legitimacy & Intervention
congress of vienna congress system1
Congress of Vienna – Congress System
  • Congress of Laibach (1821)
    • Austria authorized to intervene in Naples then Piedmont
  • Congress of Verona (1822)
    • French army vs. Spanish revolutionaries
    • Greece – national uprising vs. Turks