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Japan in the 1960s. conservative politics economic growth. The Occupation. August 1945 - April 1952 Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) - General Douglas MacArthur Two main tasks: demilitarization democratization. Korean War (1950-3). Economic turning point for Japan:

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japan in the 1960s

Japan in the 1960s

conservative politics

economic growth

the occupation
The Occupation
  • August 1945 - April 1952
  • Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) - General Douglas MacArthur
  • Two main tasks:
    • demilitarization
    • democratization
korean war 1950 3
Korean War (1950-3)
  • Economic turning point for Japan:
    • war supplies to Korea
    • industrial resurgence
    • foreign currency
    • economic reconstruction
  • 1945 - 1950 growth rate: 9.4%
  • 1950 - 1955 growth rate: 10.9%
  • 1952: Japan’s GDP matched prewar high
high growth of 1955 62
High Growth of 1955-62
  • Large investment in heavy industry
  • Imports of energy and raw materials
  • Government’s economic goals:
    • achieve economic self-sufficiency
    • achieve full employment
    • improve export competitiveness
    • keep domestic demand high
high growth of 1963 73
High Growth of 1963-73
  • Government’s plan to “double the national income in ten years”
  • scheduled 9% annual growth rate
  • large-scale infrastructure construction
    • Shinkansen (bullet train)
    • Olympic Games
    • port, road, and rails
    • human infrastructure
high growth of 1963 738
High Growth of 1963-73
  • labor-intensive in decline
    • agricultural subsidies
    • textile bankruptcies and “excess capacity”
    • coal industry in serious decline
  • capital-intensive on the rise
    • large firms had 10- and 20-fold growth
      • electronics and automobile
government response
Government response
  • government responded to some sectors’ decline with reorganization and subsidization
  • technological improvement and facility modernization under government protection
    • Ministry of International Trade and Industry
      • constant and critical role in developing the computer industry
the iron triangle
The Iron Triangle

bureaucrats

big business

executives

LDP politicians

high growth of 1963 7311
High Growth of 1963-73
  • Aggressive export strategy
    • businesses compete with foreign counterparts under government protection
  • domestic market sealed off from competition
  • Strict limitations on governmt expenditures
  • 1965 Japanese exports exceeded imports for the first time in two decades
government policies
Government policies
  • Macroeconomic success through internationally competitive firms
    • reduce the reliance on agriculture and small industry
    • capital-intensive industries
    • technically sophisticated products
    • improve national economic infrastructure
    • improve human infrastructure
protection of domestic market
Protection of domestic market
  • U.S. products and capital dominated world markets to an unprecedented extent in 1950s and 1960s
  • Japan remained virtually unpenetrated by
    • foreign firms
    • foreign products
    • or foreign capital
  • Bretton Woods system (1949 - 1971)
political economic institutions
Political & economic institutions
  • Japan compared with other industrialized democracies
    • economic institutions dramatically different
    • economic performance was superior
    • longest dominance by one political party
    • far greater egalitarianism in political economy
    • foreign and security policy tied to that of US
golden age of ldp politics
Golden age of LDP Politics
  • Liberal Democratic Party
  • 1963, LDP won 55% of vote and 60% of seats in lower house elections
  • LDP benefited from
    • the economy’s stellar performance
    • internal leadership coherence
    • fragmentation of political opponents
    • compensation of economically disadvantaged
evolution of party system
Evolution of party system
  • Combination of multiparty system with sustained dominance of one majority party
  • Chaotic political party system 1946-55
    • 2 conservative parties, 2 socialist parties, communist party, and micro-parties
  • Party merges in 1955
  • “One-and-a-Half Party System”
major political parties
Major Political Parties
  • Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)
    • conservative catch-all party
    • single largest party
  • Japan Socialist Party (JSP)
    • “Japan Peace Party”
  • Japan Communist Party (JCP)
    • anti-emperor, anti-capitalism, anti-military
    • only party untainted by money politics
suggested readings
Suggested Readings
  • http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/index-e.html
  • Journals in the UM library:
    • Japan Echo
    • Japan Quarterly
  • New books in the UM library:
    • Japan in Transformation, 1952-2000
    • Japan's Emergence As A Global Power
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