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COMPUTER MEMORY. COMPUTER MEMORY. Temporary Versus Permanent Concepts of Memory Types of Memory Chips Units of Storage Concepts of Binary Number System. Temporary Versus Permanent Storage. Temporary versus Permanent. MEMORY CONCEPT OF VOLATILITY. VOLATILE

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COMPUTER MEMORY


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    1. COMPUTER MEMORY Stephen W. Logan

    2. COMPUTER MEMORY • Temporary Versus Permanent • Concepts of Memory • Types of Memory Chips • Units of Storage • Concepts of Binary Number System

    3. Temporary Versus Permanent Storage Temporary versus Permanent

    4. MEMORY CONCEPT OF VOLATILITY • VOLATILE • Memory device loses its data if electrical power is interrupted • Main memory (using chips) is usually volatile • Data is stored electrically • Auxiliary (secondary) memory (disks and tapes) is not volatile • Data is stored magnetically

    5. VOLATILE MEMORY

    6. TYPE OF MEMORY CHIPS • ROM (Read Only Memory) • The manufacturer “writes” permanent instructions into ROM • The user cannot revise or delete these instructions • Instructions stored in ROM are called “Firmware” • Commonly referred to as BIOS

    7. TYPE OF MEMORY CHIPS • PROM (Programmable ROM) • The user buys a blank PROM from the manufacturer • Technical specialist encode the desired firmware into the PROM • The user cannot change the firmware

    8. TYPE OF MEMORY CHIPS • EPROM (Erasable PROM) • Same as PROM except a window allows erasure of firmware by ultraviolet light and re-programming

    9. TYPE OF MEMORY CHIPS • EEPROM (Electronically Erasable PROM) • Same as PROM except allows firmware to be erased electronically from keyboard

    10. TYPE OF MEMORY CHIPS • RAM (Random Access Memory) • Computer user “writes” instructions, data, text, documents into RAM • Computer user can revise or delete these RAM stored instructions, data, text, documents • Read and Write (RAW) would have been more descriptive name for RAM

    11. UNITS OF COMPUTER STORAGE • Byte One Storage Position • Kilobyte 1 Thousand Storage Positions • Megabyte 1 Million Storage Positions • Gigabyte 1 Billion Storage Positions • Picobyte 1 Trillion Storage Positions • Teraflop when storage media is a database

    12. BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

    13. BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

    14. BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

    15. BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

    16. BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

    17. BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

    18. BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

    19. MEMORY BUSES

    20. BUS WIDTH& CLOCK SPEED Microprocessors • 80386 16 Bits 16-33 MHz • 80486 32 Bits 16-50 MHz • Pentium 32 Bits 60-166 MHz • Pentium Pro 32 Bits 150-200 MHz • Pentium II 32 Bits 233-300 MHz • P6 32 Bits Up to 400 MHz • Merced 64 Bits 500-600 MHz • Others 128 Bits 600-900 MHz