Food Science • Food Science = The study of producing, processing, preparing, evaluating, and using food • Nutrients - Substances that are found in food and needed by the body to function, grow, repair itself and produce energy • Essential nutrient groups: Carbohydrates, Fats, Minerals
Carbohydrates • Supply body with energy (easily used by body) • Classified into Two kinds • Simple Carbohydrates • Complex Carbohydrates • This is based on the number and structure of the sugar molecules they contain.
Simple Carbohydrates • Simple: sugars (give short, quick bursts of energy) • Simple sugars are the basic building blocks of all carbohydrates • Mono- or disaccharides
Complex Carbohydrates • Complex: starches (energy over long periods) • Breads, cereals and pasta • Glycogen, Starch and Dietary Fiber • Polysaccharides • Humans should consume more complex carbohydrates than simple carbohydrates
Iodine test • Simple - Sugars
Fats • Energy storage nutrients • Used after carbohydrates • Also used for insulation and to protect organs • Fats and oils are members of a biological class of compounds called lipids. • Lipids are classified based on the simple property that they are insoluble in water
Fats • Two kinds • Solid: butter, lard (saturated fats) • Liquid: cooking oils (unsaturated fats) • Unsaturated fats is the LEAST harmful to your health.
Proteins • Needed for growth (building muscle) and repair • Used for energy after carbohydrates and fats • Milk, fish, meat, cheese, peas, peanuts and beans, dairy products, some veggies and fruits
Vitamins • Vitamin A, B, C, D, E, K
Minerals • Require different amounts of each • Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Sodium, Iodine, Potassium, Magnesium, zinc
Nutrition Fact Labels Nutrients listed on the Nutrition Facts label: • those that relate to today's most important health issues. • Total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium listed on food labels because people eat too much of these • Fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium and iron are listed on food labels because people eat too little of these • Percent Daily Value on a food label tells you how one serving of the given product contributes nutritionally to a 2000 calorie diet. • In order to lose weight, you must consume less energy than you expend
Calorimeters • Used to measure the heat released by breaking bonds of food molecules, Caloric content of food, Energy change by transferring the energy released by a reaction to a known volume of water • Calorie (or kcal) The amount of heat (energy) required to raise the temperature of 1 gram (g) of water 1 degree Celsius (⁰C)