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Myong Hee Ko University of Hawaii at Manoa Myong@hawaii.edu Need Analysis, A TBLT Module, & Reactions. Need Analysis, A TBLT Module, & Reactions. Myong Hee Ko University of Hawaii at Manoa. The Purpose.
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University of Hawaii at Manoa
Need Analysis, A TBLT Module,
Myong Hee Ko
University of Hawaii at Manoa
1. How the findings of needs analysis can be connected to the production of task-based teaching materials?
2. What are Korean university students’ and a teacher’s reactions to the TBLT approach?
1. Pre-Task Phase
2. During-Task Phase
3. Post-Task Phase
2. Schematization Task
3. A Genre AnalysisTask
4. Selecting a Best Summary Task
Instruction: Students were asked to carry out the following sub-tasks one by one.
Sub-Task A: Read The Queen Swallow’s Gift and choose the best summary among three examples given and discuss why
Sub-Task B: Analyze the other two summaries and discuss how they are written
Make students focus on meaning/fluency
Task: Read chapter 3 of the book and complete
the following sub-tasks individually.
Step 1. Write down the main idea of the chapter.
Step 2. Read the story again quickly, underline the important ideas of the story, and then list the main points below.
Step 3. Write a first draft of your summary in your own words based on your notes.
Teacher: Concerned with organization and
how to present material in a condensed form
1.To make sure students were on the
2. To find out their most prominent mistakes/errors to prepare for further instruction
Task: Revise your summary
Sub-Task 1: Sharing feedback with others
Students were asked to form a small group with three people and share their written feedback with one another.
Sub-Task 2: Revising a summary individually
Students were asked to revise their summary individually based on what they have learned from teacher’s feedback and their peers.
2. Observer’s (Shin-Hee) Reaction
1. If students are reluctant to participate in the tasks, this approach may not be effective (4)
“Considering educational and cultural background of Korean students, I can see that student participation is not that active as it is supposed to be. Since we are not used to learning by discussing or sharing our thoughts with others, it may take a while to get used to this type of learning. I myself had a little difficulty to adjust to a new approach. I think a teacher needs to find a way to motivate us to participate actively in small group work”
“I have learned that this approach requires much more time, compared to the traditional lecture type because it involves a series of tasks. We have many other things to learn and to do in the class, so I wonder whether the number of tasks can be cut down. It seems it takes too much time and effort for going through 8 steps to learn a summary.”
It may be more effective if task-based instruction
combines with the traditional method
(providing a teacher-led lecture) (3)
“When summarizing features of a good summary, it was good to gather ideas from students. One thing that I missed is that I hoped a teacher went over the list one by one. I think It might have been better or more effective if the teacher could have stressed or explained explicitly what was really important after the task.”
This approach seems to make students think and work a lot by completing a series of tasks. As students complete each task one by one, they learn to manage their own learning more independently, compared to the traditional lecture-type instruction. Accordingly, students may learn to value the knowledge which they have constructed by themselves through performing tasks, for example, good features of a summary. In other words, they are not just passively accepting the list of good features of a summary transmitted from a well-known academic authority. They may learn to appreciate their active construction of solutions as time goes on. Since Korean students are lacking in this kind of ability, it is a good way to promote an independent/voluntary learning attitude in the class.
A learning community such as a university is part of this country, and thus it is under the influence of the Korean culture that all Koreans have been accustomed to for a long time.
For example, there isa subordinate relationship between a teacher and a learner. Students may see learning as a process where they receive knowledge or information from their teachers.
Consequently, new knowledge constructed by themselves through discussion may be seen as doubtful information, that is, not 100 percent reliable. ….. So, I believe that it might be better if we combine the new approach and the traditional method for the sake of effectiveness.For example, we can include lectures whenever necessary while letting students complete series of tasks. Regarding the list of good features of summaries, a teacher may give students a lecture after recruiting the listing from students.
Plan for Future Implementation
1. Make students get used to small group/pair work
TBLT underpins student-centered learning.
Makes them expose to group work.
A teacher needs to find a way to motivate students’ participation
2.Add teacher’s authoritative voice
A teacher needs to keep a traditional role.
Combining student-centered learning & teacher-fronted class
Add a teacher’s affirmative explanations when wrapping up each task.
3. Number of tasks needs to be reduced
Time constraint (3 hrs a week)
8 tasks 6 tasks (combining schematization & genre analysis due to
overlapping + take away a post-task (sharing feedback w/others)