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Myong Hee Ko University of Hawaii at Manoa Need Analysis, A TBLT Module, & Reactions. Need Analysis, A TBLT Module, & Reactions. Myong Hee Ko University of Hawaii at Manoa. The Purpose.

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Myong Hee Ko

University of Hawaii at Manoa

Need Analysis, A TBLT Module,

& Reactions

need analysis a tblt module reactions

Need Analysis, A TBLT Module,& Reactions

Myong Hee Ko

University of Hawaii at Manoa

the purpose
The Purpose

1. How the findings of needs analysis can be connected to the production of task-based teaching materials?

2. What are Korean university students’ and a teacher’s reactions to the TBLT approach?

instructional context
Instructional Context
  • Reading 1 course at a university during the winter session 2006-7
  • Curriculum: a mixture of grammar-translation & CLT approach
  • 26 students from all grade levels & various majors
  • Shin-Hee was an instructor (an observer for my teaching) & I was a substitute instructor for 2 days

(4 hours)

why summary writing is important in a reading 1 course
Why Summary Writing is Important in a Reading 1 Course?
  • A reading course with graded readers creates/increases context to write.
  • Students write to summarize chapters, to express opinions & to predict stories.
  • Connecting reading & writing can facilitate deeper reading comprehension
ii a task based lesson module
II. A Task-Based Lesson Module

1. Pre-Task Phase

2. During-Task Phase

3. Post-Task Phase

pre task phase
Pre-Task Phase
  • Input Task


  • A teacher distributed the summaries of A Christmas Carol & Forrest Gump and let students read them.
  • Then, the teacher and students discussed the content of the story.
  • They talked about general things, such as do you remember the stories; when did you read them; to what extent do the summaries remind you of the stories?
pre task phase9
Pre-Task Phase

2. Schematization Task


  • Students were asked to pair up and share their thoughts about the following questions: what is a good summary; what is the purpose of writing a summary?
  • Then, the whole class shared their thoughts and the teacher listed their ideas one by one on the chalkboard.
pre task phase10
Pre-Task Phase

3. A Genre AnalysisTask


  • Students were asked to read the first two chapters of a book (graded readers), Gone with the Wind, and were given a summary of them.
  • Then, students (in small groups) were asked to analyze the structure & language style of a summary. After that, a teacher revised the key features of a good summary on the chalkboard.
pre task phase11
Pre-Task Phase

4. Selecting a Best Summary Task

Instruction: Students were asked to carry out the following sub-tasks one by one.

Sub-Task A: Read The Queen Swallow’s Gift and choose the best summary among three examples given and discuss why

Sub-Task B: Analyze the other two summaries and discuss how they are written

during task phase
During-Task Phase

Make students focus on meaning/fluency

Task: Read chapter 3 of the book and complete

the following sub-tasks individually.

Step 1. Write down the main idea of the chapter.

Step 2. Read the story again quickly, underline the important ideas of the story, and then list the main points below.

Step 3. Write a first draft of your summary in your own words based on your notes.

teacher s feedback
Teacher’s Feedback

Teacher: Concerned with organization and

how to present material in a condensed form

1.To make sure students were on the

right track

2. To find out their most prominent mistakes/errors to prepare for further instruction

post task phase
Post-Task Phase
  • Make students focus on accuracy

Task: Revise your summary

Sub-Task 1: Sharing feedback with others

Students were asked to form a small group with three people and share their written feedback with one another.

Sub-Task 2: Revising a summary individually

Students were asked to revise their summary individually based on what they have learned from teacher’s feedback and their peers.

iii reactions to tblt
III. Reactions to TBLT
  • Students’ Reactions

2. Observer’s (Shin-Hee) Reaction

students reactions
Students’ Reactions


  • Offers an opportunity to learn/work with other students (14)
  • Students can be taught easily and effectively through a step-by-step procedure (13)
  • Instruction is two-way between teachers and students whereas the traditional method was one-way instruction (11)
“I liked it because it was interactive in many aspects. I had to participate in small/pair work. This was not one-way instruction that students received things from a teacher. I could learn how to write a summary easily through a step-by-step procedure.”
students reactions18
Students’ Reactions


1. If students are reluctant to participate in the tasks, this approach may not be effective (4)

“Considering educational and cultural background of Korean students, I can see that student participation is not that active as it is supposed to be. Since we are not used to learning by discussing or sharing our thoughts with others, it may take a while to get used to this type of learning. I myself had a little difficulty to adjust to a new approach. I think a teacher needs to find a way to motivate us to participate actively in small group work”

2.Takes more class time to learn compared to the traditional method (4)

“I have learned that this approach requires much more time, compared to the traditional lecture type because it involves a series of tasks. We have many other things to learn and to do in the class, so I wonder whether the number of tasks can be cut down. It seems it takes too much time and effort for going through 8 steps to learn a summary.”

students reactions20
Students’ Reactions


It may be more effective if task-based instruction

combines with the traditional method

(providing a teacher-led lecture) (3)

“When summarizing features of a good summary, it was good to gather ideas from students. One thing that I missed is that I hoped a teacher went over the list one by one. I think It might have been better or more effective if the teacher could have stressed or explained explicitly what was really important after the task.”

observer s reaction
Observer’s Reaction


This approach seems to make students think and work a lot by completing a series of tasks. As students complete each task one by one, they learn to manage their own learning more independently, compared to the traditional lecture-type instruction. Accordingly, students may learn to value the knowledge which they have constructed by themselves through performing tasks, for example, good features of a summary. In other words, they are not just passively accepting the list of good features of a summary transmitted from a well-known academic authority. They may learn to appreciate their active construction of solutions as time goes on. Since Korean students are lacking in this kind of ability, it is a good way to promote an independent/voluntary learning attitude in the class.

observer s reaction22
Observer’s Reaction


A learning community such as a university is part of this country, and thus it is under the influence of the Korean culture that all Koreans have been accustomed to for a long time.

For example, there isa subordinate relationship between a teacher and a learner. Students may see learning as a process where they receive knowledge or information from their teachers.

Consequently, new knowledge constructed by themselves through discussion may be seen as doubtful information, that is, not 100 percent reliable. ….. So, I believe that it might be better if we combine the new approach and the traditional method for the sake of effectiveness.For example, we can include lectures whenever necessary while letting students complete series of tasks. Regarding the list of good features of summaries, a teacher may give students a lecture after recruiting the listing from students.

  • It was a one-time experiment embedded in a non-TBLT course/program.
  • We need long-term studies in order to draw more precise conclusions
  • What do we learn from reactions of Korean university students and the observer (teacher)?
  • How would I plan my future TBLT lesson?
localizing tblt to korean context
Localizing TBLT to Korean Context

Plan for Future Implementation

1. Make students get used to small group/pair work

TBLT underpins student-centered learning.

Makes them expose to group work.

A teacher needs to find a way to motivate students’ participation

2.Add teacher’s authoritative voice

A teacher needs to keep a traditional role.

Combining student-centered learning & teacher-fronted class

Add a teacher’s affirmative explanations when wrapping up each task.

3. Number of tasks needs to be reduced

Time constraint (3 hrs a week)

8 tasks  6 tasks (combining schematization & genre analysis due to

overlapping + take away a post-task (sharing feedback w/others)

importance of local context
Importance of Local Context
  • Need to consider aunique Korean EFL Context(teachers, students, class time allotment, class size, cultural/educational backgrounds, etc.)
  • Rather than simply jumping onto the new approach, Korean EFL teachers need to carefully study their situations and to decide how TBLT can best serve their needs and interests.
  • Adapting it instead of Adopting it.