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Hamline University Graduate School St. Paul, Minnesota. Frogs as Bio-indicators Joan Chadde, MI Technological University Tony P. Murphy, Hamline University Kristin Schuster, Houghton Middle School. Hamline University Graduate School St. Paul, Minnesota. What are we being told by:

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hamline university graduate school st paul minnesota
Hamline University Graduate SchoolSt. Paul, Minnesota

Frogs as Bio-indicators

Joan Chadde, MI Technological University

Tony P. Murphy, Hamline University

Kristin Schuster, Houghton Middle School

hamline university graduate school st paul minnesota2
Hamline University Graduate SchoolSt. Paul, Minnesota

What are we being told by:

Amphibian (frog and toad) malformities

Amphibian populations locally and globally

But first……

slide3

Vs.

cold blood cold blood

smooth or slimy skin warty and dry skin

strong, long legs and stubby bodies with short webbed hind feet hind legs

two bulging eyes parotid glands behind eyes

lay eggs in clusters lay eggs in long chains

a group of frogs is called a group of toads is called

an ARMY of frogs a KNOT of toads

Frogs have:

Toads have:

frogs and toads
Frogs and Toads

14 species in MN,

13 species in

MI

92 species

in USA

3,300 species

in the world

why we care
Why We Care
  • Anurans are a part of the planet’s bio-diversity.

2.Anurans interact in interesting ways with each other and the environment, i.e. both prey and predators

why we care10
Why We Care

3. Anurans provide benefits to humansi.e. Gastric Brooding Frog of Australia might have provided answers for people suffering from gastric ulcers

(Case of the Vanishing Frogs, T. Halliday and W. R. Heyer).

4 frogs as bio indicators
4. Frogs As Bio-indicators

1) double life--amphibious

2) permeable skin

3) absorb and concentrate toxins--biomagnification

4 frogs as bio indicators12
4. Frogs As Bio-indicators

Biomagnification: a process in which retained substances become more concentrated with each link in the food chain

external malformations
External Malformations
  • extra or missing limbs
  • branching limbs
  • spikes or protuberances
  • missing eyes
  • abnormal webbing
internal malformations
Internal Malformations
  • reproductive
  • digestive
  • urinary
causes of malformations
Causes of Malformations
  • genetic origins
  • parasite disruption of limb formation
  • chemical contamination
  • viruses
  • ultraviolet radiation
  • physical trauma (predation,

people)

slide22
Trematode (flatworm) cysts have been demonstrated to cause problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

Dr. Stanley K. Sessions, Hartwick College

possible chemical contaminants
Possible Chemical Contaminants
  • agrochemicals
  • heavy metals
  • acid rain
  • chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
types of agrochemicals
Types of Agrochemicals
  • herbicides

Maneb-fungicide

  • pesticides

propylthiourea

  • fertilizers

Dr. Stanley K. Sessions,

Hartwick College

types of agrochemicals26
Types of Agrochemicals

applications of the herbicide atrazine have led to egg mortality and tadpole deformities (Hazelwood 1970)

Dr. Stanley K. Sessions,

Hartwick College

where have all the frogs gone global anuran decline
Where have all the frogs gone?Global Anuran Decline
  • a concern during the past decade
  • frog declines widespread and well-documented
  • possible causes include habitat destruction, increased UV radiation, and chemical contamination
global population declines
Global Population Declines
  • Loss of habitat

from filling in wetlands to create more farmland for crops, and to build more houses and roads

(Case of the Vanishing Frogs, T. Halliday and W. R. Heyer).

global population declines29
Global Population Declines
  • Increasing ultraviolet radiation
  • Pollution by chemicals
  • Acid rain
  • Pathogens
  • Parasites
  • Introduction of non-native species