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IASSW: October 2012 Continuum of Tier 2/3 Interventions. Sheri Luecking , MSW, LCSW School Social Worker, Technical Assistance Director Illinois PBIS Network.  This is a presentation of the Illinois PBIS Network. All rights reserved.

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iassw october 2012 continuum of tier 2 3 interventions

IASSW: October 2012Continuum of Tier 2/3 Interventions

Sheri Luecking,


School Social Worker,

Technical Assistance Director

Illinois PBIS Network

 This is a presentation of the Illinois PBIS Network. All rights reserved.


Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports:A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model

Tier 1/Universal

School-Wide Assessment

School-Wide Prevention Systems

ODRs, Attendance, Tardies, Grades, DIBELS, etc.

Tier 2/Secondary

Tier 3/


Check-in/ Check-out



Social/Academic Instructional Groups

Daily Progress Report (DPR)(Behavior and Academic Goals)

Individualized Check-In/Check-Out, Groups & Mentoring (ex. CnC)

Competing Behavior Pathway, Functional Assessment Interview, Scatter Plots, etc.

Brief Functional Behavioral Assessment/

Behavior Intervention Planning (FBA/BIP)

Complex FBA/BIP


Illinois PBIS Network, Revised August 2009

Adapted from T. Scott, 2004



critical features of secondary tier 2 group interventions
Critical Features of Secondary/Tier 2 Group Interventions
  • Intervention is continuously available
  • Rapid access to intervention (72 hr.)
  • Very low effort by teachers
  • Consistent with school-wide expectations
  • Allstaff/faculty in school are involved/have access
  • Flexibleintervention based on descriptive functional assessment
  • Adequate resources (admin., team)
  • Continuous monitoring for decision-making
why do secondary tier 2 group interventions work
Why do Secondary/Tier 2 Group Interventions Work?
  • Improved structure
      • Prompts throughout the day for correct behavior
      • System for linking student with at least one adult
      • Student chooses to participate
  • Increased feedback
      • Feedback occurs more often
      • Feedback is tied to student behavior
      • Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded
why do secondary tier 2 group interventions work1
Why do Secondary/Tier 2 Group Interventions Work?
  • Increased frequency of acknowledgment/ reinforcement for appropriate behavior
      • Adult and peer attention
  • Linking school and home support
  • Organized to morph into a self-management system
do all staff understand the context for pbis
Do All staff understand the Context for PBIS?
  • Behavior support is the redesign of environments, not the redesign of individuals.
  • Positive behavior support plans define changes in the behavior of those who will implement the plan. A behavior support plan describes what we will do differently.
tier 1 universal
Tier 1: Universal
  • 3-5 Clear expectations that are taught to all staff and students
  • High Frequency, Intermittent, and Long Term acknowledgement systems
  • Data system in place to assess ODR by problem behavior, by time of day, by location, by student, and per ODR per student per day
  • Team to review on at least monthly basis
  • Administrative commitment , participation, and support
cico daily cycle march horner 1998
CICO Daily Cycle (March & Horner, 1998)

1. Check-in with assigned adult upon arrival to school

  • Adult positively greets student
  • Review School-wide expectations (daily goals)
  • Students pick up new Daily Progress Report card
  • Provide materials (pencil etc.) if needed
  • Turn in previous day’s signed form (optional)
  • Provide reinforcer for check-in (optional)
cico daily cycle continued
CICO Daily Cycle continued…

2. At each class:

  • Teacher provides positive and/or corrective behavioral feedback
  • Teacher completes DPR or
  • Student completes self-monitoring DPR/teacher checks and initials card

(self-monitoring normally happens as students begin to successfully exit the intervention)

3. Check-out at end of day:

  • Review points & goals
  • Reinforce youth for checking-out (token/recognition

optional, think beyond school-wide token)

  • Receive reinforcer if goal met (optional, but good idea)
  • Take DPR card home (optional)
cico daily cycle continued1
CICO Daily Cycle continued…

4. Give DPR to parent (optional)

  • Receive reinforcer from parent
  • Have parent sign card
  • Students are not “punished” if their parents don’t cooperate

5. Return signed card next day – celebrate (if not returned, simply go on)

social academic instructional groups
Social/Academic Instructional Groups

Three types of skills-building groups:

1) Pro-social skills

2) Problem-solving skills

3) Academic Behavior skills

Best if involves use of Daily Progress Report

These are often the skill groups facilitated by Social Workers, Counselors & Psychologists

However, can consider other providers : Teacher Assistants, Behavior Interventionists etc.

social academic instructional groups1
Social/Academic Instructional Groups

Selection into groups should be based on youths’ reaction to life circumstance not existence of life circumstances (ex. fighting with peers, not family divorce)

Skills taught are common across youth in same group (ex. use your words)

Data should measure if skills are being USED in natural settings, not in counseling sessions (transference of skills to classroom, café etc.)

Stakeholders (teachers, family etc.) should have input into success of intervention (ex. Daily Progress Report)

choosing or designing group interventions
Choosing or Designing Group Interventions
  • Choose & modify lessons from pre-packaged material based on the skill needed for the group


  • Use already created universal behavior lesson plans or create lesson plans (Cool Tools) to directly teach replacement behaviors
saig template considerations
SAIG Template Considerations
  • Name/Type of group
    • Pro-social skills
    • Problem-solving skills
    • Academic Behavior skills

Skill sets and purpose of group

  • Identify skills that need to be taught
  • Culturally appropriate Behavior Lesson Plans/Curriculum that addresses skill set
create your own lesson plans teaching behavioral expectations
Create Your Own Lesson Plans:Teaching Behavioral Expectations

1) State behavioral expectations

2) Specify observable student behaviors (rules)

3) Model appropriate student behaviors

4) Students practice appropriate behaviors

5) Reinforce appropriate behaviors

steps of a behavioral lesson plan
Steps of a Behavioral Lesson Plan

1) Explain expectations & why need

2) Check for student understanding/buy-in

3) Modelexamples

4) Check for student understanding/buy-in

5) Model non-examples

6) Check for student understanding/buy-in

7) Model examples

8) Students practice

examples of packaged instructional groups
Examples of Packaged Instructional Groups
  • Second Step (Grades PreK-8)
  • Thinking, Feeling, Behaving (Grades 1-12)
  • Tough Kids Social Skills (Grades 3-7)
  • Walker Social Skills Curriculum (Grades 6-12)
  • Skillstreaming (Grades PreK-12)
  • Stop & Think Social Skills (Grades PreK-8)
  • Passport (Grades 1-12)
  • I Can problem Solve (Grades PreK-6)
  • Aggression Replacement Training

All of above examples could be used to develop universal behavior lesson plans.

3 keys to successful s aig s
3 Keys to Successful S/AIG’s
  • Have a Roadmap/Template
  • Skills that are taught need to be pinpointed before choosing “curriculum” and are clear enough that teachers can pre-correct, shape and reinforce for generalization in classroom

ie. “Working on expressing feelings” equates to “Using ‘I messages’” on DPR form

  • Pay attention if you are choosing to use pieces of a packaged curriculum rather than your already created universal behavior lesson plans.
  • Differentiate between stand-alone curriculum and curriculum made to have lessons build upon one another

ie. Stand alone curriculum can be used

    • Skills Streaming
    • Second Step

ie. Curriculum that builds upon previous lessons – use with caution

    • ART

3. Build S/AIGs on top of a strong universal curriculum

procedural considerations
Procedural Considerations
  • Welcome
    • Introductions, if necessary
  • Purpose of Group
  • Group Norms – ie. expectations of group, aligned to school-wide expectations
  • “Curriculum” with practice
  • Closing
    • Reflection
    • Application
    • Goal setting

Corey & Corey, 2006

academic behavior skills
Academic Behavior Skills

From Skill Streaming

  • Listening
  • Asking for Help
  • Saying Thank You
  • Bringing Materials to Class
  • Following Instructions
  • Completing Assignments
  • Contributing to Discussions
  • Offering Help to an Adult
  • Asking a Question
  • Ignoring Distractions
  • Making Corrections
  • Deciding on Something to Do
  • Setting a Goal

From Getting Organized Without Losing It

  • Homework Checklist
  • After School Scheduler
  • 9 Great Reasons to Use a Student Planner
pro social skills friendship
Pro-Social Skills - Friendship

From Skill Streaming

  • Introducing Yourself
  • Beginning a Conversation
  • Ending a Conversation
  • Joining In
  • Playing a Game
  • Asking a Favor
  • Offering Help to a Classmate
  • Giving a Compliment
  • Accepting a Compliment
  • Suggesting an Activity
  • Sharing
  • Apologizing

From Strong Kids (Grades 3-5)

  • About My Feelings
  • Ways of Showing Feelings
problem solving skills
Problem-Solving Skills

From Skill Streaming

  • Knowing Your Feelings
  • Expressing Your Feelings
  • Recognizing Another's Feelings
  • Showing Understanding of Another's Feelings
  • Expressing Concern for Another
  • Dealing with Your Anger
  • Dealing with Another's Anger
  • Expressing Affection
  • Dealing with Fear
  • Rewarding Yourself
  • Using Self-Control
  • Asking Permission
  • Responding to Teasing
  • Avoiding Trouble
  • Staying Out of Fights
  • Problem Solving
  • Accepting Consequences
  • Dealing with an Accusation
  • Negotiating

From The Peace Curriculum

  • Using Positive Self-Talk to Control Anger
  • Homework #3 Anger Control: Consequences for Your Actions
  • Keeping Out of Fights
cico with individual ized features
CICO with individualizedfeatures
  • This is an intervention that adds support to generic CICO.
  • Teachers choose these more individualized options on the reverse request for assistance (RRFA).
  • Teachers are given the option to choose from these features after CICO was not enough support for a student.
cico with individual ized features1
CICO with individualized features

What it is

What it isn’t

Changing the goal line one child at a time

Changing or adding a goal for one child

Changing the goals on the Daily Progress Report for one child or a group of children

A meeting with the specialized staff and the teacher changing a student’s DPR.

  • Options are pre-determined and communicated to all stakeholders.
  • Secondary systems team designs the options for the building.
  • Quick & Efficient
  • A list of specified options teachers can choose from listed on the reverse request for assistance
cico with individual ized features2
CICO with individualized features

What it is

What it isn’t

One adult changing/ adding goals or DPR

Changing or adding a goal for a group of kids (homework, grades, or a specific behavior).

Changing the DPR card because there are individualized features

  • Used after generic CICO has been tried for a set time (for example 4-6 weeks) and the student has not met the pre-determined goal set for all children.
  • Options for individualizing the intervention are generic and quick
  • Uses the same DPR as used in generic CICO
examples of cico with individual ized f eatures
Examples of CICO with Individualized Features

Example one:

Extra check in time before/after lunch with secretary in office

Example two:

Peer accompanies student to check in at beginning of day and check out at end of day

Example three:

Check in with supportive adult prior to a difficult class period

5 types of mentoring elements of effective practice appendix section iv
5 Types of MentoringElements of Effective Practice (appendix section iv)
  • Traditional One-to-One Mentoring
  • Group Mentoring
  • Team Mentoring
  • Peer Mentoring
  • E-mentoring
activities of mentoring
Activities of Mentoring

Relationships & Tasks

(Developmental) (Instrumental)

(Karcher et al. 2006)

best practices dubois holloway valentine cooper 2002
Best Practices(Dubois, Holloway, Valentine, Cooper) 2002
  • Monitoring implementation
  • Screening
  • Matching
  • Pre-match
  • Ongoing training
  • Supervision
  • Support for mentors
  • Structured activities
  • Parent support
  • Expectations for frequency
  • Expectations for length of contact
mentoring fueled from
Mentoring Fueled from

“…importance that positive relationships with extra-familial adults promotes resiliency among youth from at-risk backgrounds.”

Rhodes, 1994

school based mentoring sbm
School Based Mentoring SBM
  • (SBM) is most common form of mentoring
  • Growth has outpaced research
  • Mentoring viewed as privilege and reward
  • To lengthen matches needs to happen early in school year.
  • One year commitment often norm in SBM (BBBS SBM and CIS SMILE study)
  • Communication with mentor and school staff, adequate access to resources and space are linked to match quality & longevity. (Herrera et al., 2007; karcher 2005a).
  • End of match is CRUCIAL stage
meta analysis 55 evaluations dubois holloway valentine cooper 2002
Meta Analysis 55 Evaluations(Dubois, Holloway, Valentine & Cooper, 2002).
  • Small benefit of program participation of average youth
  • Program effects significantly better when best practices in place
  • Youth from backgrounds of environmental risk and disadvantage benefit the most
what makes mentoring work rhodes research cornder at mentoring org
What Makes Mentoring WorkRhodes/Research Cornder at Mentoring.org
  • Conducting reasonably intensive screening of potential mentors
  • Making matches based on interests that both the mentor and mentee share
  • Providing more than 6 hours of training for mentors
  • Offering post-match training and support.
predictive of stronger positive effects
Predictive of Stronger Positive Effects
  • Procedures for monitoring program implementation
  • Use of community settings
  • Utilization of mentors with backgrounds in helping roles
  • Clearly established expectations for frequency
  • Ongoing (post-match) training for mentors
  • Structured activities for mentors and youth
  • Support for parent involvement

David L Dubois, Ph.D., University of Illinois ChicagoResearch in Action, issue 2

best practices dubois holloway valentine cooper 20021
Best Practices(Dubois, Holloway, Valentine, Cooper) 2002
  • Monitoring implementation
  • Screening
  • Matching
  • Pre-match
  • Ongoing training
  • Supervision
  • Support for mentors
  • Structured activities
  • Parent support
  • Expectations for frequency
  • Expectations for length of contact
understanding the evidence supporting school based mentoring cautions caveats karcher 2010

Understanding the Evidence Supporting School-based MentoringCautions & CaveatsKarcher, 2010

One-on-One mentoring minimizes deviancy training Dishion, McCord & Poulin, 1999; Dodge, Dishion & Lansford, 2006Misguided Mentoring

D.M. Hansen & Larson, 2007; K. Hansen & Corlett, 2007; Karcher, 2004Importance of Best Practices

Karcher, 2010

functional assessment of behavior big ideas
Functional Assessment of Behavior“BIG IDEAS”
  • Functional assessment is a problem solving process – a way to think about behavior systematically.

“FA can be done in your head.”

  • Functional assessment identifies the events that reliably predict and maintain problem behavior.
identifying who needs an fba bip
Identifying who needs an FBA/BIP
  • Academic/behavior data indicates challenge
  • High intensity or frequency of behavior
  • Behavior impedes academic performance
  • Don’t understand behavior
  • Behavior seems to meet need or be reinforcing for student
  • Interventions have not been successful
  • Use data
fba team process steps
FBA Team Process Steps
  • Collect information
    • What does the problem look like?
    • What series of events predicts behavior?
    • What is the maintaining consequence of the observable behavior?
    • Hypothesis statement?
  • Develop “competing pathways” and replacement behaviors
  • Develop BIP.
  • Develop strategies for monitoring & evaluating implementation of BSP.


Ownership & Voice: A Key to Intervention Design

The person who is supposed to implement the strategy needs to be actively involved in designing it; or it probably won’t work!


Competing Behavior Pathway

Challenging Behavior

Triggering Events

Maintaining Consequences

Setting Events



Add effective &

& remove





that is more






Add relevant

& remove



behavioral pathway
Behavioral Pathway


Less structured activities that involve competition

Setting Event

Days with Gym

Problem Behavior

Negative comments about activity and to peers leading to physical contact


Sent out of P.E. class


To escape setting

brief function based interventions
Brief Function-based Interventions

Consequence Supports

Acknowledging/rewarding student when uses new skills (asking for a drink of water to leave, using respectful language with peers, being a good sport, etc..)

  • Setting Event Supports
  • Add check-in before gym
  • Antecedent Strategies
  • Behavior Lessons for all students about using respectful language with self and others and how to be to be a good sport
  • . More frequent activities with less focus on competition (parachute, 4-square, etc...)
  • Pre-correct
  • Teaching Strategies
  • Teach social skills (getting along with others, friendship, problem solving, sportsmanship)
  • Teach how to approach gym teacher to ask for a drink of water to leave setting.
  • Teach student how to re-enter and continue with activity
common mistakes seen in behavior intervention plans
Common Mistakes Seen in Behavior Intervention Plans
  • Becoming ‘immobilized’ by setting events beyond the control of the school, ex. student does not take medication at home, what is the setting event at school? What is something the school can identify and impact?
  • Skipping the replacement behavior : Must have a alternative or replacement behavior that student is taught, practiced, reinforced
  • Not enough teaching strategiesand opportunities
  • Putting all the “eggs in one ‘consequence’ basket”, ex. If your good all week, you can have a soda on Friday
other common mistakes
Other common mistakes…
  • The problem behavior is not operationally defined: observable, countable, measurable: must be able to see, count, and measure behavior. Aggressive versus hits other peers during unstructured time on a daily basis
  • There is more than one function: non example, obtain peer attention and avoid doing work
  • There need to be at least one strategy in at least 3 areas (Antecedent, Behavior, and Consequence)
common mistakes on the bip
Common Mistakes on the BIP

Need to make sure there is:

  • A strategy for preventing problem behavior
  • A strategy for minimizing reinforcement of problem behavior
  • A strategy for reinforcing the use of desired/alternative behavior
individualized teams at the tertiary level
Individualized Teams at the Tertiary Level
  • Are unique to the individual child & family
    • Blend the family’s supports with the school representatives who know the child best
  • Meeting Process
    • Meet frequently
    • Regularly develop & review interventions
  • Facilitator Role
    • Role of bringing team together
    • Role of blending perspectives
individualized comprehensive teams plans
Individualized Comprehensive Teams/Plans
  • Who?
  • Youth with multiple needs across home, school, community
  • Youth with multiple life domain needs
  • The adults in youth’s life are not effectively
    • engaged in comprehensive planning
  • (i.e. adults not getting along very well)


The development of a very unique, individualized, strength-based team & plan with the youth and family that is designed to improve quality of life as defined by the youth/family.

individualized comprehensive teams plans1
Individualized, Comprehensive Teams/Plans

What Do Tertiary Plans include?

Supports and interventions across multiple life domains and settings (i.e. behavior support plans, academic interventions, basic living supports, multi-agency strategies, family supports, community supports, etc.)

What’s Different?

Natural supports and unique strengths are emphasized in team and plan development. Youth/family access, voice, ownership are critical features. Plans include supports for adults/family, as well as youth.

what is wraparound
What is Wraparound?
  • Wraparound is a tool (e.g. a process) used to implement interagency systems of care in achieving better outcomes for youth and their families.
  • The wraparound process is similar to person-centered planning, the individualized Positive Behavior Support (PBS) planning process.
what is wraparound1
What is Wraparound?
  • Wraparound is a process for developing family-centered teams and plans that are strength and needs based
    • (not deficit based)
    • across multiple settings and life domains.
  • Wraparound plans include natural supports, are culturally relevant, practical and realistic.

Implementing Wraparound:

Key Elements Needed for Success

  • Engaging students, families & teachers
  • Team development & team ownership
  • Ensuring student/family/teacher voice
      • Getting to real (big) needs
  • Effective interventions
      • Serious use of strengths
      • Natural supports
      • Focus on needs vs. services
  • Monitoring progress & sustaining
  • System support buy-in
what s new in wraparound
What’s New in Wraparound?
  • Skill set specificity
  • Focus on intervention design/effectiveness
  • Integration with school-wide PBS
  • Phases to guide implementation/supervision
  • Data-based decision-making
  • Integrity/fidelity assessment (WIT)
  • Tools to guide teams:
    • Home School Community
    • Education Information Tool
wraparound skill sets
Wraparound Skill Sets
  • Identifying “big” needs (quality of life indicators)
    • “Student needs to feel others respect him”
  • Establish voice/ownership
  • Reframe blame
  • Recognize/prevent teams’ becoming immobilized by “setting events”
  • Getting to interventions that actually work
  • Integrate data-based decision-making into complex process (home-school-community)
four phases of wraparound implementation
Four Phases of Wraparound Implementation
  • Team Preparation
    • Get people ready to be a team
    • Complete strengths/needs chats (baseline data)
  • Initial Plan Development
    • Hold initial planning meetings (integrate data)
    • Develop a team “culture” (use data to establish voice)
  • Plan Implementation & Refinement
    • Hold team meetings to review plans (ongoing data collection and use)
    • Modify, adapt & adjust team plan (based on data)
  • Plan Completion & Transition
    • Define good enough (Data-based decision- making)
    • “Unwrap”
renew r ehabilitation for e mpowerment n atural supports e ducation and w ork
RENEW: Rehabilitation for Empowerment, Natural Supports, Education and Work
  • Philosophy: All youth can succeed with the proper supports, treatments, and services. (2010. Institute on Disability. University of New Hampshire)
    • Self-Determination
      • Develop skills in decision-making, problem-solving, self-management, self-awareness, and self-advocacy
    • Community Inclusion
      • Identification and use of natural supports and community resources
    • Unconditional Care
      • No specific behavioral criteria required to participate in RENEW
    • Strengths-based Planning and Service Provision
      • Focus on what the young person can do, wants to do and is good at doing
    • Flexible Resource Planning and Development
      • Individuals support plan draws on a wide variety of resources to ensure goal attainment.
renew goals
  • High School Completion
    • Currently less than half of all young people with emotional disabilities graduate from high school. (Wagner, Newman, Cameto & Levine, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2005)
  • Employment in Typical Jobs for Competitive Wages
    • Working is extremely significant in the development of competence, self-determination and self-efficacy.
  • Postsecondary Education
    • Training and education beyond high school is a prerequisite for landing competitive jobs that pay livable wages.
  • Sustainable Community Inclusion
    • Social isolation and lack of community resources are common challenges for many high risk youth.


and Accomplishments


What Works


What Doesn’t Work

ensuring capacity at all 3 tiers
Ensuring Capacity at All 3 Tiers
  • Begin assessment and development of secondary and tertiary tiers at start-up of universal
    • Assess resources and current practices (specialized services)
    • Review current outcomes of students with higher level needs
    • Position personnel to guide changes in practice
    • Begin planning and training with select personnel
  • All 3 tiers addressed at all district meetings and at every training
tertiary level coaches have to help establish capacity fidelity for wraparound
Tertiary Level “Coaches” have to help establish capacity (fidelity) for wraparound:
  • Commitment of time
  • Commitment to “stay at table”
  • Willingness to regroup and be solution-focused
  • No judging or blaming
  • Time for listening to stories
  • Time for venting, validating
  • Establishing consensus
  • Voice of student/family in prioritizing
  • Establishing ownership
on going self assessment of secondary tertiary implementation
On-going Self–Assessment of Secondary/Tertiary Implementation

Building Level:

  • IL Phases of Implementation (PoI) Tool
  • IL Secondary/Tertiary Intervention Tracking Tool
  • Sp. Ed Referral Data
  • Suspensions/Expulsions/Placements (ongoing)
  • Aggregate Individual Student Data (IL SIMEO data)
  • LRE Data trends
  • Subgroup data (academic, discipline, Sp. Ed. Referral, LRE, etc)

District Level:

  • Referral to Sp. Ed. Data
  • LRE Data (aggregate and by building)
  • IL Out-of-Home-School-Tracking Tool (multiple sorts)
  • Aggregate SIMEO data
  • Aggregate PoI Data