WordsaliveA Vocabulary Acquisition Program for Middle Schools “A word is the skin of a living thing.” Oliver Wendell Holmes
LET’S BRAINSTORM • What are the problems your students have when you introduce new material? • What are the ways in which you introduce new words to your students? • How was vocabulary taught to you when you were a student?
SIMULATION # 1 • Find a partner who teaches a different subject from the one you teach. • Using the methods you usually use with students, teach one word from your subject area to your partner. • Trade roles so that your partner teaches you one word from his or her discipline.
How do we really learn new words and make them our own? Martha Rapp Haggard tells us that adults have a three step process. 1. Search for the word’s meaning and pronunciation. 2. Practice the word in a low risk situation. 3. Use the word properly without effort. “Vocabulary self-collection strategy: an active approach to word learning.” (1982). Journal of Reading, 26.3, 203-207.
What are the characteristics of good vocabulary instruction? Eileen Carr and Karen Wixson provide four guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction. Students should: • relate new vocabulary to background knowledge; • develop elaborated word knowledge; • be actively involved in learning; and • develop strategies for acquiring vocabulary independently. “Guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction.” (1986). Journal of Reading, 29.7, 558-595.
The purpose of the workshop is to provide the tools for all teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning. • Is there a word in the purpose statement which needs more instruction? Which one?
…to provide the tools… to teach vocabulary…in a way that extrapolates student learning Wordsalive Map extrapolates extend a curve or function beyond the range of known values using the values that have already been determined enhance, enrich or go beyond what’s there improves extra-beyond pol-polish ate- to make verb/Latin extends confines polish extra- curricular Sketch as a personal clue, association, or visualization Escher’s designs extrapolate a variety of shapes.
Parts of sentence(s) from the book which reveal the context Wordsalive Map WORD Dictionary Definition Paraphrased definition Guessed definition Antonym or non-example Etymology and P.O.S. Synonym Related Words Sketch as a personal clue, association, or visualization Caption using the new word
SIMULATION # 2 • Find a partner who teaches the same subject as you do. • Using the wordsalive map transparency, choose a familiar word from your subject area to map with your partner. • Take a short break. • Share and discuss.
Why do we need to do all the parts of the Wordsalive Map? Baumann and Kameenui discuss three levels of word knowledge that can be used to consider depth of understanding and related instructional procedures. 1. Association: with a single definition or context 2. Comprehension: broad understanding and ability to use, classify or identify the opposite 3. Generation: ability to produce a novel response “Research on vocabulary instruction: Ode to Voltaire.” (1991). Handbook on Teaching the English Language Arts, 602-632.
Baumann and Kameenui’sthree levels of word knowledge: an analogy Association: shaking hands Comprehension: becoming friends Generation: calling on a friend when in need
Association Copy the sentence Why? • Facilitates decoding and provides direct interaction with the word. • Focuses attention on the context clues and the content. How? • Copy only as much of the context that supplies the essence of the meaning for the new word. • Use selection and deselection of information. • Include the sentence before or after the new word, if necessary. wordsalive
Association Copy the sentence Copy only the essential context from the following sentences: “If Immanuel Kant had stumbled across this luncheon after his noon Beverly Hills shrink appointment, he would have quickly discerned that Lisa is all phenomena and no noumena, and that Mirabelle is all noumena and no phenomena.” (p 32) “Mirabelle is not sparkling tonight, because she works only in gears, and tonight she is in the wrong gear. Third gear is her scholarly, perspicacious, witty self; second gear is her happy, giddy, childish self; and first gear is her complaining, helpless, unmotivated self. Tonight she is somewhere midshift...” (p 63) “But right now, he is using the hours with her as a portal to his own need for propinquity.” (p 77) Martin, S. (2000). Shopgirl, Hyperion. wordsalive
Association Record only the essential context into the speech bubble. wordsalive
All contexts are not created equal! Copy the sentence 1. Misdirective contexts which mislead the reader. 2. Nondirective contexts which provide no assistance to the reader. 3. General contexts which provide only enough information for the reader to categorize the unknown word. 4. Directive contexts which lead the reader to the specific, correct meaning for a new word. Beck, McKeown, and McCaslin, “Vocabulary Development: All contexts are not created equal.” (1983). Elementary School Journal 177-181.
All contexts are not created equal! Misdirective Context “Mr. Barry, ...this is just a courtesy call to do you the courtesy of interrupting your dinner so I can ask you a question. …I hang up. But of course this does not stop them. …they call again. That’s how courteous they are.” Dave Barry, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000
All contexts are not created equal! Nondirective Context “ There is a doggedness about [Charles] Wright’s treatment of these things that becomes, as the poems pile up, somehow both humble and heroic.” Ron Smith, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000
All contexts are not created equal! General Context “ ’Meat is contraband,’ the customs agent said as he confiscated the ham.’ ” Jonathan Yardley, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000 “ In him [Arthur Miller] the American theater found, perhaps for the first time, an eloquence and an amplitude of feeling…” Jere Real, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000
All contexts are not created equal! Directive Context “On the other hand, the windblown deposits of mineral-rich dust and silt called loess have benefited farmers in China, the American Midwest and other parts of the world.” World Geography : Prentice Hall, page 51.
Association Guess, copy and paraphrase the definition Why use the dictionary? To link the word to the appropriate definition based on the context. Why paraphrase? To lead to the comprehen-sion level. Why guess? To activate background knowledge. We learn more when we are self-involved.
Guess and paraphrase the definition a covering of a plane without overlaps or gaps using combinations of congruent figures tessellation preponderant influence or authority especially of one nation over others hegemony subduction the process of the edge of one crustal plate descending below the edge of another The paraphrase begins the comprehension process.
Comprehension Comprehension Synonym, antonym, etymology, and related words Related Words Multiple opportunities for interaction with the new word will allow each student to find understanding in his unique way.
Comprehension Find a synonym Why? • Synonyms can provide a new label for a known concept. How? • Synonyms should be consistent in part of speech; however, teachers should recognize students’ developmental stages as they move toward that consistency. • Pull synonyms from the definition, context, prior knowledge, or etymology. • Do not just copy one from a thesaurus. wordsalive
Comprehension Find an antonym The Not Box Why? • “Polarity is located at the deepest and most abstract level of the semantic network.” (Powell, 1986) • Definition by contrast How? • Provide an opportunity to reinforce negative prefixes. (Hennings, 2000) • Many words do not have antonyms, but a non-example works well to establish polarity. (Frayer, 1969) wordsalive
Finding antonyms The Not Box Three types of antonyms • Mutually exclusive • singular/plural • husband/wife • Graduation • icy/scalding • emaciated/obese • Undo • buy/sell • wrap/unwrap wordsalive Powell, “Teaching vocabulary through opposition.” Journal of Reading 29.7 617-621.
Comprehension Create a synonym and antonym • cleave • benign • frolic • arrange • suitable • destination • nourishment • sufficient • often • prohibit wordsalive
Comprehension Etymology and Morphology Related Words
What is etymology? Etymology is the study of the history and structure of words. When we study etymology we learn the origins of words.
Comprehension Teach etymology Why? • Nearly 70% of multisyllabic words in English come from Greek and Latin roots. • Roots and affixes link new words to background knowledge. • Suffixes reveal the part of speech. How? • Provide an opportunity to discover prefixes, suffixes and roots. • Tell the stories of words. wordsalive
Etymology The Structure and History of Words An inflection: internal or external change in a word form which signifies some addition to or change in a word to denote a modification in meaning. A derivation: a tracing of the meaning and formation of a word to its origin. wordsalive
Etymology The Structure and History of Words Inflections: secede, secession, succeed, success, intercede, intercession, precede, preceding, recede, receding, receded, exceed, proceed, procedure, precession, process, concede, concession... All of the cede words originated from the same Latin root meaning to go or to yield. wordsalive
Etymology The Vocabulary Etymology - etymos: true, actual, real logos: word, speech Inflections - flectare: to bend, turn Derivation - riva: stream Language - lingua: tongue, language wordsalive
Etymology Composition and Derivation of English Words Four Divisions: 1. Primitive/Primary Words: words that cannot be resolved into simpler elements (man, horse, run) 2. Derivative Words: words which consist of significant parts which exist either separately or in other combinations (man-ly, man-hood) 3. Compound Words: words consisting of two or more parts, each a significant word in itself (apple-tree, tea-spoon) 4. Hybrid Words: words with elements from different languages (gentleman, footsteps) wordsalive
Etymology The Vocabulary: Affixes: Prefixes: intensify or negate enlarge, commingle, redo, misquote Suffixes - show part of speech or number dog/dogs internal/internally/intern/internist/ internalize/ internalization wordsalive
Etymology The Stories of Words Do you know where the word italics comes from? We use italics frequently, but do we know its origin? The name for the slanted form of type comes from Aldus Manutius, an Italian printer who published the first book with this kind of type in 1501. The book, a work by Virgil, was dedicated “To Italy” and subsequently, other printers, publishers, and writers began referring to the unique type as “Italian” and eventually in English, “italics.” wordsalive The Word Origin Calendar, (2000, October 5) Accord Publishing.
Etymology Recent Journal Article “Learning clusters of words that share a common origin helps students understand content area material.” Dorothy Grant Hennings “Contextually relevant word study: Adolescent vocabulary development across the curriculum” Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 44:3 November 2000 pages 268-279 wordsalive
Etymology Date: Fri Jan 21 00:04:25 EST 2000 Subject: A.Word.A.Day--enormity Address: email@example.com Enormity (I-NOR-mi-tee) noun 1. The quality of passing all moral bounds; excessive wickedness or outrageousness. 2. A monstrous offense or evil; an outrage. 3. (Usage Problem) Great size; immensity. wordsalive
What is Morphology? Morphology is the study of the building blocks of words. A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning into which a word can be broken.
Comprehension Related words/ Word Families Why? • “For every word a child learns … there are an average of one to three additional words…”(Baumann and Kameenui, 1991) • Links new words to students’ background knowledge. • Facilitates decoding through chunking. How? • Find the root or the affix and use it in another word from the students’ repertoires. wordsalive
Comprehension Etymology and Morphology polygon poly - many gon - angle Greek noun polytheism polyphony
Related words Word families antonym synonym anonymous synonymous eponym homonym anonymity contronym onym
Build your own family of words. Related words Word families
Related Words - Word Families Build your own family of words. aud bi bio chron dict duce graph ject phone photo plex poly port scribe sect therm vis,vid voc wordsalive
99 syllables From Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher 1. Display a list of 99 syllables which have been generated ahead of time from a group of interesting words. 2. Allow participants 15 minutes to reassemble the words into the original list. 3. Read aloud in alphabetical order the original words with the number of syllables, and assign one point for each syllable reassembled correctly. 4. For an easier variation of the game, use a smaller number of syllables.
45 morphemes a morphology game adapted from 99 syllables in Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher alpha cogn gener ize pol ant com hens lab pol ar con ic logy pre ate de ing morph re ation di intro multi rect ary duce ion non s bet eme ity onym syl bul etymo ive para text cod extra ize phrase voca wordsalive
45 morphemes A morphology game adapted from 99 syllables in Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher Answers alphabetize introduce antonym morpheme comprehension multisyllabic contexts nondirective decoding paraphrase etymology polarity extrapolate recognize generation vocabulary wordsalive
Decoding: Unlocking the pronunciation Insurmountability Steps by chunking: 1. Start with the suffix(es). 2. Proceed to the prefix(es). 3. Tackle the root. 4. Slide it all together. In sur mount abil ity
Will the Wordsalive Map move students to the deepest level of word knowledge ? Baumann and Kameenui’s three levels of word knowledge 1. Association: with a single definition or context 2. Comprehension: broad understanding and ability to use, classify or identify the opposite 3. Generation: ability to produce a novel response According to Janis Harmon, moving from comprehension to generation takes time, effort, discussion, classification and usage. Help students pause and reflect before generating novel responses. Postpone the last steps of the map until comprehension can develop.