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Vaccines Against Viral Infection. Austin Follett Medicinal Chemistry. Anti-Viral Vaccines. History Vaccine types How they work Recommended Schedule Specific Vaccines Flu HIV/AIDS Human Papillomavirus (HPV) To stick or not to stick?. History of Vaccines.

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vaccines against viral infection

Vaccines Against Viral Infection

Austin Follett

Medicinal Chemistry

anti viral vaccines
Anti-Viral Vaccines
  • History
  • Vaccine types
  • How they work
  • Recommended Schedule
  • Specific Vaccines
    • Flu
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
  • To stick or not to stick?
history of vaccines
History of Vaccines
  • Chinese inoculated themselves against smallpox before 200 B.C.
  • Edward Jenner inoculated against smallpox with cowpox in 1796
  • Vaccination comes from Latin (vacca– cow)
  • Louis Pasteur took the concept and applied it to prevent against anthrax and viral rabies
  • 1988: W.H.O. targets polio for eradication
  • 2000: Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization formed; strengthens routine vaccinations in countries with GDP below $1000
  • Currently, nearly two dozen vaccines are available for use in the United States
types of viral vaccines
Types of Viral Vaccines
  • Inactivated: Virus particles are grown then killed by either heat or formaldehyde
  • Attentuated: Live, weakened form of the virus particles
  • Subunit: Only given antigen of virus
    • Isolation of specific protein
    • Recombinant administration
vaccination schedule
Vaccination Schedule
  • By age two, children are recommended to have the following vaccines by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices:
    • Hepatitis A & B, Polio, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, HiB, Chicken Pox, Rotavirus, Influenza, Meningococcal disease, and Pneumonia
flu vaccine
Flu Vaccine
  • Virus has 8 piece genome undergoes antigenic drift
  • The flu kills 36,000 in the US annually
  • Flu vaccine is an educated guess of the most probable form of virus
  • Two main types:
    • Flu shot: inactivated vaccine
    • Nasal-spray: attentuated vaccine
should you get vaccinated
Should you get vaccinated?
  • Yes, if you are at high risk or care for someone who is
  • No, if you are allergic to chicken eggs or are otherwise immunocompromised
  • Side effects:
    • Possible virulence from nasal-spray
    • Soreness, redness
    • Low-grade fever
    • Aches
hiv vaccine
HIV Vaccine
  • An effective HIV Vaccine would allow the body to completely rid itself of the virus and/or control it to prevent infection and transmission
  • Three types being used: subunit, recombinant, and DNA vaccines
  • http://www.hopkins-aids.edu/hiv_lifecycle/hivcycle_txt.html
hiv methods of prevention
HIV Methods of Prevention
  • Prevent fusion to host cell
  • Inhibit reverse transcriptase
  • Inhibit integrase: no viral integration into host genome
  • Target protease: prevent polypeptide cleavage, functional HIV proteins
  • Prevent release from host cell
where s the vaccine
Where’s the vaccine?
  • Several challenges arise with development:
    • HIV continually mutates and recombines
    • HIV infects Helper T cells
    • Can be transmitted as both free virus and in infected cells
    • Researchers are unsure what constitutes an effective immune response to HIV
    • No ideal animal model for testing exists
    • Possibility that HIV is not the true cause for AIDS
human papillomavirus vaccine
Human Papillomavirus Vaccine
  • HPV is required in the development of nearly all types of cervical cancer
  • Vaccination prevents initial infection by several of the most commonly sexually transmitted HPV types
  • Estimated that 50% of men and women will become infected with one of the sexually transmitted HPV types during adulthood.
  • Along with cervical cancer, HPV can cause skin and genital warts as well as anal cancer and penile cancer
the vaccine
The Vaccine
  • All types of HPV do not cause cancer, but a vaccine has been developed that protects against types 6, 11, 16 and 18, which cause 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts combined
  • However, other types can cause the cancer, so Pap smears are recommended to prevent cancer development
gardasil
Gardasil
  • On February 2, 2007 Texas Governor Rick Perry mandated that all school girls going into sixth grade be vaccinated
  • Studies have only been done in short duration, long-term impact unknown
  • In 2006, estimated that 9,700 women developed cervical cancer, 38% died
  • Although all cervical cancer types are not covered by this vaccine, this prevalence would be greatly reduced by widespread vaccination
  • Currently, multiple groups nationwide question the value of the vaccine as a whole; safety issues seem to have fallen under the importance of speed.
  • In addition, other high-risk HPV types can circumvent the vaccine completely, reducing its effectiveness.
controversy to stick or not to stick
To:

Vaccinations prevent viral infections, most effective way of disease prevention

Cost-effective method to manage healthcare

Herd immunity could extend to those that don’t get the vaccine

Not to:

Certain vaccinations have not been tested completely

Compulsory vaccination represents excessive government interaction

Childhood vaccinations contain mercury, which has a possible connection with autism (MMR, DTP, HiB, Hep. B)

Controversy:To Stick or Not To Stick?