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Teaching for Transfer in Biliteracy: The Power of Word Study PowerPoint Presentation
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Teaching for Transfer in Biliteracy: The Power of Word Study

Teaching for Transfer in Biliteracy: The Power of Word Study

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Teaching for Transfer in Biliteracy: The Power of Word Study

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    1. Teaching for Transfer in Biliteracy: The Power of Word Study Jill Kerper Mora, Ed.D. San Diego State University Website: moramodules.com

    4. The Metalinguistic Approach We teach how language works to convey meaning, not just spelling for spellings sake or for accuracy in decoding & spelling. We teach linguistic concepts & principles, not just phonics rules or skills. We progress from language universals that apply generally to all languages into specific features of Spanish & English. We make similarities and contrasts between the oral & written languages explicit through direct & systematic teaching for transfer.

    5. Metalinguistic Transfer (MT) in Bilingual/Biliteracy Learning MT is the application of particular metalinguistic awareness & knowledge in L1 to language learning & literacy achievement in L2 English. Knowledge & skills that transfer across languages include phonemic awareness & phonological processes, knowledge of phoneme-grapheme relationships in the L1/L2 orthographic systems & recognition of syntactic features of both languages. Some reading strategies are common to both languages, while others are specific to the phonetic & graphic systems of L1 or L2. Explicit instruction in these features is productive.

    6. Metalinguistic Knowledge Language is rule governed: For example, in Spanish nouns have number and gender and the articles and adjectives that are used to modify them must agree according to certain fixed rules. The alphabetic principle: Written text is a representation of language. In alphabetic languages, letters represent sounds in the language. These sounds (phonemes) are sometimes represented by a single letter, sometimes by more than one letter, and sometimes by clusters of letters. We can break words up into isolated sounds in order to map these sounds into print and/or decode text into language.

    7. Spanish Phonics Phonemic awareness Letter-sound correspondences Spelling patterns Syllabification Diphthongs and syllable juncture Categorization of words according to stressed syllable Rules for the use of written accent marks

    8. Enfoque Comunicativo y Funcional Libro para el Maestro Gr. 1 Leer no es simplemente trasladar el material escrito a la lengua oral: eso sera una simple tcnica de decodificacin. Aprender a leer en forma comprensiva lleva ms tiempo que aprender a descifrar. Leer y escribir son dos actos diferentes que conforman las dos caras de la misma moneda. Cuando se comienza a leer mecnicamente es muy difcil cambiar despus la forma de leer. Los maestros de 1er grado enfrentan la heterogeneidad de niveles conceptuales de los alumnos de primer ciclo.

    9. Phonics in Biliteracy Classrooms Spanish L1 Phonics Syllabic awareness develops before phonemic awareness (PA) since syllables are defined-boundary & rhythmic sound units. PA involves attention to syllabic stress patterns that alter meaning. Spelling patterns within syllables (syllabic context) such as with letters c and g determine letter-sound correspondence. English L2 Phonics There is greater consistency in English spelling in larger-than-phoneme units. Onset & rhyme segmentation abilities are precursors to learning analogical decoding concepts. English has many monosyllabic words with 1-phoneme differences. Open vs. closed syllables determine vowel sounds in multisyllabic words.

    10. Word Study In Spanish Letras difciles Parts of speech & changes of function Singular/plural inflections & noun/adjective agreement Classification by syllable stress & written accent Cognates Verb tenses, conjugation and agreement Diminutive and augmentation derivitives (ito, n, ote, simo) Enclisis & apcope (cualquier, cualquiera, gran, grande)

    11. TWI Daily Instruction Plan

    12. Secuencia de Caractersticas (Trujillo & Reyes, 2008) Etapas alfabtica 1. vocales y consonantes 2. hiato (hacia/haca) 3. prefijos consonantes que coinciden diptongos y dgrafos grupos consonnticos 4. polifacticas diresis H muda H ante diptongo 5. diptongo con h triptongos grupos consonnticos y voclicos (ps, gn) Etapas estructura de palabras 1. slabas 2: morfemas flexivos sufijos (dad, ito, ote, simo) enclticos (pronombres, reflexivos) slaba tnica maysculas 3. prefijos palabras compuestas 4. slabas con c, g y vocales 5. Usos del acento: enftico diacrtico (deresis) polislabas

    13. Spanish Spelling Continuum Gr. 4-6 (Trujillo & Reyes, 2009) Gr. 4-6 Levels of mastery of word features on spelling test Palabras compuestas (89%) c/s; z/s; x/s (61%) g/j; gue, gui, ge, gi (57%) sc, cc, xc, xp (46%) Y letra con /y/ fonema (39%) Acento enftico (19%) H muda (18%) Acento diacrtico (14%) Acento en polislabas (14%)

    14. Metalinguistic Knowledge Concepts of Print Concept of Word When words are written, they are separated from each other by blank spaces to make them easier to distinguish from one another. Concept of sentence Sentences also have signals that set them apart in written text, such as capital letters at the beginning and a period or question mark at the end.

    15. Palabras Compuestas abre corta mata rompe salta toca mesa ante traba tumba latas uas moscas cabezas montes discos banco ojos lenguas burros

    16. Ms Palabras Compuestas aguamiel bienvenido buenaventura cascanueces lavamanos Nochebuena parabrisas pelirrojo quehaceres sabelotodo sinvergenza aeropuerto agridulce bienestar carilargo correcaminos cuentagotas madrepatria paraguas plumafuente sacapuntas sinsabor

    17. Cmo sera? Un abremoscas Una tocalenguas Una cortacabezas Una saltagotas Un sacaburros Unas aerouas Un nadalosabe

    18. Metalinguistic Knowledge Phonology Language is a flow of sounds that represent meaning. The flow of sounds can be broken up into units called words. A word represents a concept or idea. Words can be segmented into the sounds that make it up and then reconstructed by blending those sounds together again into words. The core sound unit applied in Spanish reading for sounding out words is the syllable. Syllables contain at least one and frequently two vowel sounds (diphthongs). There are stressed and unstressed syllables.

    19. Phoneme to Grapheme Relationships

    20. La mar estaba serena. Serena estaba la mar. La mar astaba sarana. Sarana astaba la mar. Le mer estebe serene. Serene estebe le mer. Li mir istibi sirini. Sirini istibi li mir. Lo mor ostobo sorono. Sorono ostobo lo mor. Lu mur ustubu surunu. Surunu ustubu lu mur.

    21. Alfredo, El Nio Asustado (Mora, 2001) A Alfredo le encantaba contar cuentos de fantasmas para asustar a sus amigos, pero un buen da le jugaron una broma con un globo de gas y una sbana. Pens Alfredo que le persegua un fantasma como los que haba inventado l. Sus amigos le dieron un buen susto y se fue corriendo diciendo AAAAAAA aaaaaaa!

    22. El Abuelito Don Ernesto Al abuelito Don Ernesto se le dificulta entender lo que le dicen. Su odo ya no le funciona muy bien. Cuando hay algo que le interesa or, pide que se lo repitan, diciendo EEEEEEE? eeeeeee?

    23. El Ratoncito Inteligente El ratoncito inteligente record los consejos de su mam. Ella le haba dicho: Las ratoneras son muy peligrosas. Aquel pedazo de queso ola muy sabroso. Lanz una piedra y la trampa se solt. Pudo disfrutar su queso y se rea as: i-i-i-i-i-i-i.

    24. Oscar El Perro Travieso Oscar es un perro muy travieso. Le gusta hacer cosas difciles y peligrosas. Quera que el circo lo contratara. Cuando se subi a un alambre de tendedero para practicar, estaba a punto de caerse. Mientras mantuvo el equilibrio deca... OOOOOOO ooooooo!

    25. El Trenecito Chu-cu-ch El trenecito Chu-cu-ch va muy contento avisando a todos que ya lleg al pueblo. Seguro que le encanta la idea de irse a descansar. Ha hecho un largo viaje. Trajo a muchos pasajeros y mucha carga tambin. Su silbato de vapor suena as: UUUUUUU uuuuuuuu!

    26. Metalinguistic Knowledge Orthography A few Spanish phonemes have more than one letter-sound association and a few letters represent more than one phoneme. In these cases, we must pay attention to groups of letters to determine how to decode. If the reader pays attention to a few basic rules and to written accent marks, s/he can pronounce every written Spanish word correctly with the proper stress placed on each syllable.

    27. Cmo se escribe? Por slabas: meteorologa = me-te-o-ro-lo-g-a inmisericordiosamente = in-mi-se-ri-cor-dio-sa-men-te Por diferencia de letras difciles: El apellido Esparza? Es con z. Gonzlez o Gonzales? Es con s o con z? Jirafa es con g o con jota? Coser de hilo y aguja, o cocer como cocinar? Por acento desinencial y significado: Es s con acento como en S, se puede!

    28. Las Dificultades de la Ortografa en Espaol Letras difciles (c/s/z; b/v; g/j; r/rr; ie/ll/y; el uso del diresis sobre la u) Las letras mudas (H/h; u despus de g, q) Combinaciones de consonantes conjuntas (con l o con r) y separadas (mb de bombero, mp de campesino, nv de inventor, nf de enfermera) El acento escrito Uso de letras maysculas

    29. Es con G o con J? ma_ia _irafa _bilo ho_ear _ente _inete mon_e tar_eta refu_io ciru_a magia jirafa jbilo hojear gente jinete monje tarjeta refugio ciruga

    30. Metalinguistic Knowledge Morphology Gr. K Words have parts called syllables. We can listen carefully to words and count the number of syllables because they can be separated somewhat naturally as we sound out the word. This helps us to hear the different sounds in the word. We can add parts (phonemes or syllables) to words to change their meaning, such as adding s or es to words (nouns) to signal more than one object (singular v. plural).

    31. Los Diptongos aire causa ciudad deuda peine heroico lluvia cuando cuidado duende pie estudio

    33. Ejercicios Silbicas de Letras Difciles Complete con la slaba Correcta con g o q: m ____ na ju ____ te ____ la ___ tarra man ___ ra ye ____ borre ___ to ho ____ ra Respuestas: mquina juguete guila guitarra manguera yegua borreguito hoguera

    34. Function of Written Accent Two Syllable Words

    35. Function of Written Accent Three Syllable Words

    36. Ejercicios Fonolgicos 1. Te _________a que vayas a la fiesta. 2. Tienes mucho _________ hoy por haber descansado bien. 3. Se __________ cuando oy las buenas noticias. nimo animo anim 1. Te animo a que vayas a la fiesta. 2. Tienes mucho nimo hoy por haber descansado bien. 3. Se anim cuando oy las buenas noticias.

    37. Acento Desinencial

    38. Metalinguistic Knowledge Morphology Grade 1 Words have parts (syllables) that function specifically to signal meaning. If we change word endings, we signal meanings such as how many (nouns). We can create word families to signal different forms and functions around a concept (zapato, zapatero, zapatera, etc.). Changes in word endings can also indicate size, age, intensity or feelings toward the person, place or thing named by the noun (mis zapatitos, mi hermanito).

    39. Change of Function Accents 1. este libro (demonstrative adjective) meaning "this" versus ste (demonstrative pronoun) meaning "this one" 2. que (relative pronoun) as in "el libro que veo en la mesa" meaning "that" versus qu? (interrogative pronoun) meaning "what" 3. como (relative pronoun) meaning "as" Ex. "tan grande como un elefante" versus cmo? (interrogative pronoun) meaning "how" Cmo est usted?

    40. Ejercicios del Acento Desinencial Te digo que ______ alumno espera que el profesor _______ a tiempo para empezar la clase. Y ________ qu piensa del asunto? este ste est Te digo que este alumno espera que el profesor est a tiempo para empezar la clase. Y ste qu piensa del asunto?

    41. Acentos en Interrogativos Complete correctamente: 1. _______ es que llegaste a ser tan alto _______ tu pap? [C]omo [C]mo 2. Es _________ tu mam es alta tambin o _________ crees t? por qu porque Respuesta: 1. Cmo es que llegaste a ser tan alto como tu pap? 2. Es porque tu mam es alta tambin, o por qu crees t?

    42. Types of Morphological Units (Birch, 2007) Inflectional Morphemes Dont usually change the words part of speech Are usually suffixes. Are mechanical--They dont result in a new & different word but a different form of same word. The change in meaning is a predictable grammatical detail. EX: plurals, possessives, verb endings, adjectives, adverbs Derivational Morphemes Result in a change in the words part of speech compared to the base they are added to. Can be either prefix or suffix. Make a substantial & sometimes unpredictable change in meaning. Are creative & result in a new & different word. EX: care, careless, carelessness

    44. Un Lexicn Electro electricidad electricista electrificacin electrificar electrizable electrocutar electrnico electrocardiograma electrocarigrafo electrmetro

    45. Muchos Caballos caballo caballito caballejo caballada caballeriza caballera caballazo cabalgar caballero caballerezco caballerosidad caballerango

    46. Familias de Palabras Derivaciones El _______ hace pan en la _____________. La _________ en una caja donde se guarda el pan. El joyero vende ___________ en la ____________. Mam las guarda en el _________ en su recmara. La __________ y el _________ editan libros en la _____________ Santillana. El ____________ hace piatas y las vende en su ______________. Una _______________ nos atiende cuando estamos enfermos. No me quiero _________ con la gripa. Me quit el zapato y le di un _____________ a mi hermano en la cabeza. Luego lo puse de nuevo y bail un ____________ del Jarabe Tapato.

    47. Familias de Palabras Derivaciones El panadero hace pan en la panadera. La panadera es una caja donde se guarda el pan. El joyero vende joyas en la joyera. Mam las guarda en el joyero en su recmara. La editora y el editor editan libros en la editorial Santillana. El piatero hace piatas y las vende en su piatera . Una enfermera nos atiende cuando estamos enfermos. No me quiero enfermar con la gripa. Me quit el zapato y le di un zapatazo a mi hermano en la cabeza. Luego lo puse de nuevo y bail un zapateado del Jarabe Tapato.

    48. 13 Categories of Cognates Atlntico democrtico cliente equivalente indicacin atencin artista pianista monumento testamento abundante constante metdico tcnico gracioso laborioso aniversario salario necesidad universidad problema sistema aristocracia democracia distancia obediencia

    49. Metalinguistic Knowledge Grammar Verb forms and tense and conjugation. Subjects and verbs must agree according to a set of rules for forming the verb (morphology). We have this agreement in order to tell who acted and when (tense). We can use forms (pronouns) to avoid repeating the subject of a sentence every time we tell about an action. Sometimes the subject of the verb will be signaled by a verbs ending. There are different endings and changes in verbs to indicate the time when the action takes place: past, present or future.

    50. Metalinguistic Knowledge Syntax Sentences can be analyzed to discover their component parts, which have labels and categories according to their functions. Changes in word order signal changes in meaning. We can change a sentences meaning by switching words around and/or adding words to complete the meaning, such as in declaratives sentences to questions, affirmative sentences to negative.

    51. Significado por Sintaxis un hombre pobre un hombre rico comidas varias una seora grande Que gane el gordo! Vivir la pura vida El alcalde del pueblo Ms vale una vieja mula que una mula vieja. un pobre hombre un rico hombre varias comidas una gran seora Que se gane El Gordo! Vivir la vida pura El pueblo del alcalde Vale ms una mula viaja que una vieja mula.

    52. Transitional Writing Fourth Grade Biliteracy Classroom Dear Joranel, Yers terteia y went to Mexsicali wiat mi Granmater. it was very porin. Den we went to mi angles haus to vesit him and mi gasens. Dent we went to mi casen Janette I plait nentendto de caset of Race cars. Its rili fon to play wit it and it a litol art to play it and put de informatian. Dend we plait Maro brodes put I tirent no au to play it. It was may ferst taim I min ist cold Super Mario broders. Dent we wet hom. I tremd oft a litel ant dat he alwes at hes pibus penso wit is ireser and Charbener and books an hes bak bak.

    53. Standard English Version Dear Journal, Yesterday I went to Mexicali with my Grandmother. It was very boring. Then we went to my uncles house to visit him and my cousins. Then we went to my cousin Janettes. I played Nintendo the cassette of Race Cars. Its really fun to play with and it is a little hard to play it and put the information in. Then we played Mario Brothers but I didnt know how to play it. It was my first time. I mean, its called Super Mario Brothers. Then we went home. I dreamed about a little ant that he always had the biggest pencil with his eraser and sharpener and books and his backpack.

    54. English Demons for Spanish Speakers (Thonis, 1983) All the short vowels-hat, bed, hit, top, up The sh of shoes, mission, nation, ocean, chef, special, sugar (One sound with 6 different spellings!) The th of this & the th of thank The j of jello, edge The z of zero, has The v of voice, very The r-controlled vowels-especially the one sound (ir, er, ur) The zh of measure, mirage The d of day, ladder, bad The h of home, house, hare

    55. Orthographic Transfer in Spanish/English Biliteracy In developing biliteracy skills, bilingual learners: Apply Spanish spellings to English words Use Spanish spelling approximations for English phonemes that do not exist in Spanish. Collapse English vowels into Spanish vowels, diphthongs or consonant blends. Hear English phonemes but not know the English spelling patterns, such as vowel and consonant digraphs or silent letters.

    56. Category 1 Spanish spellings applied to English words cald cudent dident hamberguer homwerk ji, gi juer litel mek plaid priti wi called couldn't didn't hamburger homework he where little make played pretty we

    57. Category 2 Spanish spelling approximations for English phonemes that do not exist in Spanish afev brader cach famaly finichd halp heven initig luking olwais raiding ticher tings uegueychchen half brother catch family finished help haven't anything looking always writing teacher things vacation

    58. Category 3 Collapse of English vowels into Spanish vowels beby cosen ding em finichd hose laks mek pepot pickas pinsol sker ting wen wit baby cousin doing am finished house likes make people because pencil scared thing when with

    59. Category 4 Unfamiliar English spelling patterns asc dos frendes lern lat lok mek muny pikup rill scool shakig sumuirr werck wons ask does friends learn late look make money pickup real school shaking summer work once

    60. Category 5 Confusion of word boundaries aplejus chang in euritame the haf togo verinice yes terteia apple juice changing every time they have to go very nice yesterday

    61. Juegos de Palabras Pregunta: Cul es el ltimo animal que cre Dios? Respuesta: El delfn!

    62. Resources Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2008). Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary and Spelling Instruction, 4th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Trujillo, I.H. & Reyes, J. (2008). Estudio de palabras, 2d Ed. Anthony, NM: Gadsden Independent School District. Rojas, E. (2003). La ortografa del idioma espaol. Mxico: D.F.: Editers Publishing House.

    63. Dr. Moras CLAD Website To Dr. Moras Home Page moramodules.com Contact Dr. Mora at this address: E-mail: jmora@mail.sdsu.edu