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Systems Development. Planning Lifecycle. Systems Development: Some Key Questions. How does an organization ensure that its IT resources support its business plan? How do we ensure compatibility and interoperability across different system development efforts?

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systems development

Systems Development



systems development some key questions
Systems Development: Some Key Questions
  • How does an organization ensure that its IT resources support its business plan?
  • How do we ensure compatibility and interoperability across different system development efforts?
  • How does a systems project get authorized?
  • How is a project controlled and reviewed?
systems lifecycle
Systems Lifecycle
  • Investigation
  • Design
  • Construction
  • Testing
  • Implementation
  • Maintenance
  • Enhancement
  • Retirement

All of these activities

comprise system


and form a lifecycle

strategic planning
Strategic Planning
  • Based upon businesses multiyear strategic plan
  • Identify IT components or requirements within the business plan
    • Include IT inhibitors as well as IT-based breakthroughs
  • Create rough plan of major IT initiatives
  • This should form a baseline IT plan as well as human resources plan
steps in is planning
Steps in IS Planning

Strategic Plan



Prioritize and


Determine resources

required (people, $, time)

Create planning


3-Year Business Plan

Accelerate product intro process to 4 months

Move manufacture of mature products to Mexico

Expand e-commerce capabilities to direct online selling and custom catalogs

3-Year IS Plan

Engineering automation: implement e-only design process

Extend corporate network to offshore manufacturing partners

Create internet sales site and custom catalog framework


The objectives of this plan must be time sequenced and budgeted

  • Many firms have developed “systems architectures”
    • A high-level roadmap which maps business functions to present and future systems
    • And shows relationships between systems
    • Does not specific timeframe
    • Must be updated regularlyl
  • Specific investment decisions and priorities can be made within this framework
systems development model
Systems Development Model
  • Traditional
  • Alternatives
    • Prototyping
    • Rapid Application Development
    • CASE-based
    • Time-boxing
benefits of methodology
Benefits of Methodology
  • Various models are often called “methodology”
    • A system of methods
  • Provide common language and expectation
  • Allow for standard management reviews
  • Create standards for documentation and testing
  • Almost impossible to be credible without one
traditional software development lifecycle sdlc
Traditional Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC)
  • Often called Waterfall Model





traditional sdlc
Traditional SDLC
  • From four to 12 phases
  • One phase completed before beginning next phase
  • Emphasis on documentation and checkpoints
  • Detailed planning and budgeting at each phase
example of sdlc
Example of SDLC

Phase and Deliverable

  • Pre-investigation
    • Project proposal and recommendation
  • Investigation
    • Investigation Report
    • Analysis of alternatives
    • Cost and benefit analysis
    • Schedule
    • Recommendation
  • Requirements Analysis
    • Detailed system requirements
    • Revised cost and benefits analysis
    • Revised schedule
example of sdlc15
Example of SDLC

Phase and Deliverable

  • Design
    • Logical design
    • Technical design
    • Test plans
    • Revised cost and benefits analysis
    • Revised schedule
  • Construction & Testing
    • System elements
    • Implementation plans
    • Contingency plans
    • End user training materials
    • Maintenance plan
    • Operations plans
  • Implementation
    • Cutover / Phase in
pros and cons of sdlc
Pros and Cons of SDLC
  • Advantages
    • Lends itself to good control
    • Phase deliverables well defined
      • Facilitates contracting
    • Clear checkpoints makes reviews easy
    • Creates detailed documentation which is valuable for maintenance
pros and cons of sdlc17
Pros and Cons of SDLC
  • Disadvantages
    • Time and cost estimation difficult
    • Can be very slow
    • Requires that requirements are defined abstractly, without interaction with “system”
    • Overall ownership usually on “systems” people
improvements to traditional sdlc
Improvements to Traditional SDLC
  • Dedicated project teams
    • Full time end-user designers
  • JAD workshops
    • Joint Application Design
    • Facilitated workshops
      • 1 to 5 days
      • Scribes
      • Perhaps prototype tools
    • Requirements definition or design
time box approach
Time Box Approach
  • Identify objectives
  • Create project team
  • Set time period (6 weeks)
  • Team cycles through all phases of lifecycle very quickly, sometimes in parallel
  • Fast development tools very useful
  • Review takes place at end of time period
    • Continue project for another period?
    • Cancel all-together?
    • Implement current system?
advantages of time box approach
Advantages of Time Box Approach
  • Advantages
    • Eliminates gap between system on paper and “real” system
    • Immediate demonstration of technical feasibility
    • Limits investment risks
    • Developers prefer it
disadvantages of time box approach
Disadvantages of Time Box Approach
  • Disadvantages
    • Longer commitment may be needed to get results
    • Danger of implementing unstable or poorly-maintainable product
    • Without discipline to focus on objectives, can be wasteful
  • Aim: Quickly create something that shows how the system (or a portion of it) will work
  • Allow hands out interaction with system to test requirements and key design features
  • Problem: How do you build something quickly?
    • Use 4GL (fast development, poor performance), recode later
    • Reduce feature set (no editing of data)
    • Create key modules only
  • Nonoperational prototypes
    • Mockups that don’t really work
    • Limited to input and output (reports, screens)
  • Operational prototypes
    • Working systems or portions of systems
    • Possibly 4GL based
case tools
CASE Tools
  • Computer Aided Software Engineering
    • Toolsets to speed software development and improve quality
  • Upper CASE
    • Focus on investigation, analysis and design
  • Lower CASE
    • Design, code generation and testing
  • Integrated CASE include both
case tools25
CASE Tools
  • Repository
    • Database containing all development objectives
      • Data elements and definitions
      • Requirements
      • Code modules
    • Enables a team to work on the CASE project
  • Data model
    • Dictionary and schema
  • Code generation
    • Product 3GL or 4GL code
rapid application development
Rapid Application Development
  • Trendy term for many of these alternative methods used is some combination
    • CASE
    • JAD
    • Prototyping
    • Time Boxing
project management
Project Management
  • Project Management
    • Identification of tasks to be completed
    • Understanding of relationship between tasks
    • Tracking of task ownership and status
    • Adjustment of resources and plans in reaction to events
    • Task tracking and accountability
    • Management reporting and escalation
risk assessment
Risk Assessment
  • Many projects predictably fail do to risk profile
  • Major risk factors
    • Scope
    • Timeline
    • Experience of team
    • Organizational change
    • Geographic scope
end user development
End User Development
  • Easy-to-use tools encourage end-user development
  • So does IT department resource constraints
  • Advantages
    • Good knowledge of business needs
    • Control of resources and priorities
  • Disadvantages
    • Lack of technical expertise
    • Lack of planning
it organization vs end user development
IT Organization vs. End-User Development
  • Source of tension
  • Users: “It is too slow and don’t know our business”
  • IT: “Users produce poor systems and leave us with maintenance”
  • How should IT respond to this?
    • Ignore
    • Outlaw and drive underground
    • Offer assistance and consultation