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Solar Opposers Moon Buggy 2 Presenters: Donna Durkee Jeremy Apt Charlie Tullis Craig Scholes Piyush Goyal Ryan Carr Final Presentation Advisory Committee April 27, 2007 Table of Contents Budget Schedule Design Considerations Design Changes PSU Hub Manufacturing Stress Test

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solar opposers moon buggy 2

Solar OpposersMoon Buggy 2

Presenters:

Donna Durkee

Jeremy Apt

Charlie Tullis

Craig Scholes

Piyush Goyal

Ryan Carr

Final Presentation

Advisory Committee

April 27, 2007

table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Budget
  • Schedule
  • Design Considerations
  • Design Changes
  • PSU Hub
  • Manufacturing
  • Stress Test
  • Testing
  • Performance
  • The Race
budget
Budget

Craig

design considerations
Design Considerations
  • Projected drivers weight: 350lbs
  • Target vehicle weight: 100lbs
  • 3 gears
  • Max top speed: 30mph
  • F.S.
    • 2 on Frame and seats
    • 4 on suspension and hubs

Donna & Ryan

design considerations7
Design Considerations
  • Targeted turning radius: 10ft
  • Steering
    • Turning radius
      • We are shooting for approximately 10ft
    • Bent tie rods -
  • Solution
    • Moved bell crank forward
    • Longer bell crank arms

Ryan & Donna

design changes
Design-Changes
  • Seats-Mesh bucket
  • Shortened Frame
  • Plastic Fenders
  • Chains gears
    • 35 roller chain
    • 1:1 Gear Ratio
    • 3 speed Shimano internal gear shifter
  • Minor Changes to frame

Donna

design criteria
Design-Criteria
  • Shortened Frame
    • Turning radius 10ft or less
    • Total length 7 ft 3 in
  • Plastic Fenders
  • 17.83 mph
  • Ending weight 195 lbs
  • 4x4x4 box
    • Steering
  • 2 useable gears

Donna

psu hub design
PSU Hub Design
  • Envelope
  • Design Conditions
  • Forces
  • Materials
  • Casting
  • Casting Failure

Donna

envelope
Envelope
  • Hub is attached to control arms at 3 point
  • Top-1 point, Bottom- 2 points
  • Control arms are 0.75 inch square tubing

Donna

design conditions
Design conditions
  • Weight= 1.0 lbs per hub
  • Drawing measurements in inches
  • Final Design
    • Weight = ¾ lb

Donna

forces
Forces
  • Forces
    • 200 pound upward force (positive z direction), on wheel from weight,
    • Wheel center is 2 inches from edge of the hub
    • 50 pound in the negative y direction for impact
    • Safety factor of 4

Donna

hub material
Hub Material
  • Al 356 T6 Aluminum Cast Alloy
    • Pour Temperature 1485°F
    • Titanium Boron Grain Refined
  • T6 Heat Treatment
    • 8 hr at 915°F
    • Instant Quench
    • 4 hr at 310°F

Charlie

hub material19
Hub Material

Al 256 T6 Aluminum Cast Alloy

casting
Casting
  • Green Sand Mold
  • Sodium Silicate bonded sand for core
  • Flask size: 20” x 14” x 4/8
  • Follow board to establish parting line
    • Provided by Jeremy and Red Ball Pattern Shop
  • 3” diameter x 4” ↑ riser in gating
  • Draft angle

Charlie

casting failure
Casting Failure
  • Impact Load
    • No defect in casting or metallurgy
  • Repair
    • 100% penetration Tig welded fracture
    • Reinforcing web added
      • Al 6061 T6 forged alloy
        • ¼” Plate
  • Cost of repair
    • $210

Charlie

manufacturing
Manufacturing
  • Kept Original Plan
    • Frame
      • Cut parts
      • Fit and weld parts
    • Steering
    • Drive train & chains
    • Hubs
    • Shocks & tires
  • Minor Changes to Plan
    • The steering moved below the drive train and hubs

Donna

manufacturing23
Manufacturing
  • Complications & Changes during Manufacturing
    • The chains
      • 45 roller to 35 roller
    • Hime Joints
      • For travel Issues
    • Angles
      • Seat supports
        • Compound miter
    • Drive shaft
      • 3/8” out of square
    • Steering Handle
      • Pinned for 4x4x4 criteria

Donna

manufacturing24
Manufacturing
  • Processes used
    • Mill
      • Angles on tubing
    • Lathe
      • Turn down drive shaft
      • Machine hub
    • Water Jet
      • Shock mounts
      • Differential Mounts
      • Seat base
    • Hem Saw
      • Frame Tubing

Donna

stress test
Stress Test
  • A force of 6000lb was applied at a 10 degree angle
    • Which broken into components is a 5900lb force directed along the frame (-y) direction
    • a force of 1000lb in the (+z) up direction
    • The 6000lb force was if it hit a curb at an angle with one of the front tire absorbing the force and deforming ¾” in the x direction

Craig

stress test29
Stress Test
  • There was considerable deformation but no high stress areas (red) appearing
  • Which to us implies that it would not break
  • There may have been an error in the constraint rotation
    • We figured it would have shown more rotation

Craig

stress test31
Stress Test
  • A force of 300lb was placed on each peddle
    • This may have been high because we took the highest amount leg pressed by the drivers
      • This is with both legs and not just one
  • The peddles were fixed and only allowed to rotate about the x axis

Craig

test plans
Test Plans
  • STRUCTURAL TESTS

Collision, Vibration, Sound Test.

Crack Testing.

  • PERFORMANCE TESTS

Functioning of Brakes, Suspension, Turning Radius Test.

Piyush

structural tests
Structural Tests
  • COLLISION TEST

Crashed the buggy into a metal hopper with a speed of 5 miles per hour.

RESULTS

A bent front left tire.

We had to replace the tire with a new one.

Piyush

structural tests35
Structural Tests
  • VIBRATION AND SOUND TEST

This test wasperformed during the test drive of the buggy.

RESULTS

We found out that some of the nuts and bolts were not tightened. And we also had to adjust the tension on the chains that connects the internal hubs to the drive shaft.

Piyush

structural tests36
Structural Tests
  • CRACK TESTING

We planned on doing crack testing on the rear hubs using the Ultra Sonic Tester.

RESULTS

Due to lack of time we were not able to do the tests.

Piyush

performance tests
Performance Tests
  • We had a test track which helped us determine some of the problems that we faced on the day of final race.
  • We had a brake test on the buggy and found out that the stoppage time at a speed of 10 miles per hour was 2 feet.
  • During the test drive, the buggy fell off the mogul which resulted in breakage of the rear right hub and a crack on the left hub.
  • We repaired the hubs and also built replacement hubs out of steel just in case the hubs failed again.

Piyush

performance
Performance
  • Steering Issues
  • Drive Hub Issues
  • Suspension
  • Seats

Jeremy

steering issues
Pros:

Simple to make

Sturdy design

Cons:

Slowed Assembly time due to pin

Multiple re-designs

4x4x4

Steering Issues

Jeremy

drive hub issues
Drive Hub Issues
  • Reused part
  • Slight alignment problem with chains
  • Slack in the internal gears
    • Which caused some slippage during the race.

Jeremy

shocks and seats
Shocks and Seats
  • Good design on the shock mounts
    • Good positioning of shock mounts allowed for better performance
    • If softer never would have gotten airborne over obstacle 3, and no bottoming out over obstacles
  • Seats
    • Most expensive part on buggy
    • Comfortable and soundly designed

Jeremy

the race
The Race

Jeremy

penalties
Penalties
  • Off course -
    • due to the steering being loose
  • Lower gear -
    • Easier to remove one’s buggy from obstacles

Jeremy

on board electronics
On-Board Electronics
  • Digital Camera
    • On board view of the race from the front of the buggy.
  • Speedometer
    • Recorded actual race data
      • Top speeds thru out the course

Jeremy