Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity Chapter 9
9.1 What is a Minority? • Size or Color? • Key Features of Minorities • Distinctive physical features which can be separated from the majority • Minority is dominated by the majority • Minority traits are often believed to be inferior to majority traits • Members of the minority have a common sense of identity • Majority determines who belongs to the minority through ascribed status.
9.1 How do we define Race? • Skin color, hair color, facial features, etc… • Three Types: Negroid, Mongoloid, Caucasian • There is no real “pure” race • Only slight differences appear between races, but no race is inferior to one another.
9.1 What is Ethnicity? • Cultural and National Identity • Ethnic cultures usually try to maintain some of their own norms, beliefs, and values. This usually make them an ethnic minority.
9.2 Patterns of Assimilation • Minority groups have two choices when entering the US: • Rejected by society • Assimilated to society • To conform to a new society values may have to be given up or suppressed. “Resistance is Futile”
9.2 Melting Pot or Salad Bowl? • Cultural Pluralism: a desire for a group to maintain some sense of identity separate from the dominant group. Example: Mexican-American • Cultural Pluralism provides conflict within a group • Accommodation: Extreme cultural pluralism (Cuban-Americans in Miami)
9.3 ‘Fighting da Man’ • Prejudice • Negative attitudes towards another group and its members • Based on insufficient information • Example: All white Southerners are racist. • Racism • Assumes that one’s own ethnic group is superior to another • Discrimination • Acting upon beliefs by treating others unfairly • Functionalist Perspective • The dominant group feels superior to minorities, hence strengthening their self concept
9.3 Hate Crimes • A Criminal Act Motivated by Prejudice • Hate Crimes involving labeling a group or person • Case Study: James Byrd, Jr. • Case Study: Matthew Shepard
9.3 Stereotypes • A distorted, exaggerated or oversimplified image applied to a category of people. • Overwhelmingly false! • What stereotypes do we have? • How can we change them?
9.4 Institutionalized Discrimination • Unfair practices that grow out of common behaviors and attitudes that are part of the structure of a society • Example: Education in the ghettos • Example: preventing blacks from voting by making them take complex tests
9.4 African Americans • Physical characteristics (skin color) make it hard for African Americans to assimilate. • Large gaps exist between African Americans and Whites • African Americans are twice as likely as whites to work in lower level jobs. • Overall, African Americans have a hard time finding work.
9.4 Latinos • From Central, South America & the Caribbean. • Fastest growing minority group
9.4 Native Americans • 2 Million, 500 tribes • 28% of Native-Americans live below the poverty line • 25% of Native Americans live on reservations • High levels of alcoholism and abuse • Use of ‘gaming’ to improve economic status and social situations for tribes.
9.4 Asian Americans • 4% of the total population • China, Philippines, Japan, India, Korea and Vietnam • Chinese are seen as dedicated to hard work & education. • 1941- 110,000 Japanese-Americans forced into internment camps in America. (Restitution of $20,000 each) • 42% of Asian Americans has completed four years of college