Inequalities of race and ethnicity
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Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity Chapter 9 9.1 What is a Minority? Size or Color? Key Features of Minorities Distinctive physical features which can be separated from the majority Minority is dominated by the majority Minority traits are often believed to be inferior to majority traits

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9 1 what is a minority l.jpg
9.1 What is a Minority?

  • Size or Color?

  • Key Features of Minorities

  • Distinctive physical features which can be separated from the majority

  • Minority is dominated by the majority

  • Minority traits are often believed to be inferior to majority traits

  • Members of the minority have a common sense of identity

  • Majority determines who belongs to the minority through ascribed status.


9 1 how do we define race l.jpg
9.1 How do we define Race?

  • Skin color, hair color, facial features, etc…

  • Three Types: Negroid, Mongoloid, Caucasian

  • There is no real “pure” race

  • Only slight differences appear between races, but no race is inferior to one another.


9 1 what is ethnicity l.jpg
9.1 What is Ethnicity?

  • Cultural and National Identity

  • Ethnic cultures usually try to maintain some of their own norms, beliefs, and values. This usually make them an ethnic minority.


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9.2 Patterns of Assimilation

  • Minority groups have two choices when entering the US:

    • Rejected by society

    • Assimilated to society

  • To conform to a new society values may have to be given up or suppressed.

“Resistance is Futile”


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9.2 Melting Pot or Salad Bowl?

  • Cultural Pluralism: a desire for a group to maintain some sense of identity separate from the dominant group. Example: Mexican-American

  • Cultural Pluralism provides conflict within a group

  • Accommodation: Extreme cultural pluralism (Cuban-Americans in Miami)


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9.3 ‘Fighting da Man’

  • Prejudice

    • Negative attitudes towards another group and its members

    • Based on insufficient information

    • Example: All white Southerners are racist.

  • Racism

    • Assumes that one’s own ethnic group is superior to another

  • Discrimination

    • Acting upon beliefs by treating others unfairly

  • Functionalist Perspective

    • The dominant group feels superior to minorities, hence strengthening their self concept


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9.3 Hate Crimes

  • A Criminal Act Motivated by Prejudice

  • Hate Crimes involving labeling a group or person

  • Case Study: James Byrd, Jr.

  • Case Study: Matthew Shepard


9 3 stereotypes l.jpg
9.3 Stereotypes

  • A distorted, exaggerated or oversimplified image applied to a category of people.

  • Overwhelmingly false!

  • What stereotypes do we have?

  • How can we change them?


9 4 institutionalized discrimination l.jpg
9.4 Institutionalized Discrimination

  • Unfair practices that grow out of common behaviors and attitudes that are part of the structure of a society

  • Example: Education in the ghettos

  • Example: preventing blacks from voting by making them take complex tests


9 4 african americans l.jpg
9.4 African Americans

  • Physical characteristics (skin color) make it hard for African Americans to assimilate.

  • Large gaps exist between African Americans and Whites

  • African Americans are twice as likely as whites to work in lower level jobs.

  • Overall, African Americans have a hard time finding work.


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9.4 Latinos

  • From Central, South America & the Caribbean.

  • Fastest growing minority group


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9.4 Native Americans

  • 2 Million, 500 tribes

  • 28% of Native-Americans live below the poverty line

  • 25% of Native Americans live on reservations

  • High levels of alcoholism and abuse

  • Use of ‘gaming’ to improve economic status and social situations for tribes.


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9.4 Asian Americans

  • 4% of the total population

  • China, Philippines, Japan, India, Korea and Vietnam

  • Chinese are seen as dedicated to hard work & education.

  • 1941- 110,000 Japanese-Americans forced into internment camps in America. (Restitution of $20,000 each)

  • 42% of Asian Americans has completed four years of college