POLYTHEISM • Polytheism
POLYTHEISM • Belief in, or worship of, multiple deities or gods. • Gods are conceived as complex personages of greater or lesser status, with individual skills, needs, desires and stories. • The gods are not always omnipotent or omniscient; rather, they are often portrayed as similar to humans in their personality traits, but with additional individual powers, abilities, knowledge or perceptions. • Sumerian gods, the Egyptian gods, the Ancient Greek religion, Norse Æsir and Vanir, the Yoruba Orisha, the Aztec gods, and many others.
HINDUISM The sound OM, or AUM, is the most sacred symbol for Hindus. It is often used in prayer
HINDUISM • Collection of beliefs that developed over thousands of years (combo of Arayan beliefs w/ native beliefs). No founder. India. • Brahman is most divine spirit • Holy Men, GURUS, are spiritual teachers. They interpret the religion. • Sacred Books: Vedas/Upanishads • Liberation from desires and suffering: Moksha. • Reincarnation based on Karma and Darma • Caste System (ex: Brahmin)
JUDAISM Star of David (shield of David)…is the universal symbol of Judaism. It refers to King David, who ruled the kingdom of Israel.
JUDAISM • First heavily followed monotheistic religion. • Book: Torah • God chose Abraham to be the “father” of the Hebrew people. • To Hebrews, God (Yahweh) was not a physical being and no images were made of Yahweh. • Migrated to Egypt from Canaan (today’s Israel) and were forced into slavery. • Exodus: 1300-1200 BCE…Moses led them from slavery. • 900 BCE – 2 kingdoms: Judah and Israel. Judah was destroyed by Assyrians. • Fighting for Jerusalem still exists today.
CONFUCIANISM • Confucius lived during Zhou Dynasty (500’s BCE) • His influence wasn’t appreciated until Han Dynasty (200’s BCE) • 5 Basic Relationships • Ruler/Subject 2. Father/Son 3.Husband/Wife 4. Older brother/younger brother 5. friends FILIAL PIETY – respect for parents and elders. • Social Order/Harmony • Education is critically important
DAOISM YIN YANG, represents harmony if YIN (EARTH/FEMALE/PASSIVE) and the YANG (HEAVEN/ MALE/ ACTIVE)
DAOISM • Laozi (600 BCE). • Natural Order is KEY! • Of all creatures of nature, only humans fail to follow the Dao or “the way”. • Government should do as little as possible and leave the people alone. • Communion with nature instead of political chaos.
BUDDHISM WHEEL OF LAW – his teachings are often a symbol of the wheel and interconnectedness of life and all living things.
BUDDHISM • Siddartha Guatama – 563 BCE • Wandered to find “Enlightenment”. • 4 Noble Truths about suffering and how to get rid of it. • 8-Fold Path = steps to Nirvana (release from selfishness and pain. • Draws from Hinduism – but also a reaction to harsh Hindu traditions (Caste). • Spread throughout all of Asia
CHRISTIANITY CROSS = symbol of crucifixion of Jesus Christ…represents Jesus’ love for humanity in dying for its sins.
CHRISTIANITY • Worship of Roman gods was impersonal, practiced without a great deal of emotion. Christianity was accepted and spread. • Emphasized individual relationships with God. • Jesus (prophet) was born a Jew in Judea (4 BCE?). Christians believe he is the son of God. • Bible = combo of Jewish and new Christian ideas • Constantine was first Roman emperor to accept it as the Romans expanded East. It became official religion of Rome, eventually.
ISLAM Crescent Moon – became symbol during Ottoman Empire. Maybe 5 stars represent Pillars? Some Muslims actually do not accept it. It is often used on political flags to represent Islamic nations.
ISLAM • Mecca, Saudi Arabia – holy city • Muhammad – Final Prophet (accepts Abraham and Jesus as well. )…about 1000 years after AXIAL AGE! • 5 Pillars of Faith • Monotheistic • Islamic Empire – becomes it own empire! • Trade and Commerce spread its ideas and became a huge empire.