IT for Decision Makers Networking and Security - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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IT for Decision Makers Networking and Security

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  1. IT for Decision MakersNetworking and Security By Sam Fonua for UNESCO 2002

  2. Presentation Overview • Background on Security • Why Security • Threats and attacks • The motives, techniques and methods • Vulnerability • Security Policies

  3. Internet “Information Super Highway” • A network of Networks • One of the Most Valuable Resources of the Information Age • Provides Access to User Networks • Runs without Single Entity in Charge

  4. What is a LAN (Local Area Network)? • A data communication network • Often confined to a single room, building or adjacent buildings • In a Larger scale - WAN (Wide Area Network)

  5. Today’s Network Environment Interconnectivity

  6. Computer Security 3 Facts • Computers are critical to fulfill your organization’s mission • There are defined threats to your computer system • Computer system are vulnerable

  7. What are these threats…as perceived by many? • Unauthorized users • those that have access to information that they are not suppose to gain access to. “In 1999, some students at the University of the South Pacific managed to get access to the system and retrieve a list of all students email passwords. This allowed them to send abusive messages toothers using other students email account”

  8. What are these threats…as perceived by many? • Careless employees • those that can change, modify or damage data intentionally or unintentionally, A government Information Technology officer in the Tuvalu Government accidentally deleted the content of one of the Government Computer’s Hard Disk early this year which contain hundreds of official documents …no backups!!! backing up of important data is not considered important in most developing countries including Pacific Island Countries.

  9. Perceived threats…? • Malicious Attackers • hackers: those that use hacking tools to gain access to networks, usually to exploit vulnerabilities. • It is known that most Internet services Providers (ISPs) in Developing countries are still very much insecure. It took a while for the Tonga ISP (Kalianet) to realize that there was a hole in their security system. Allowing hackers to crack their password system and gain access to the internet free of charge. Entry into the server would give access to most of the nations emails

  10. Perceived threats…? • Virus Attackers • Virus attack comes in many forms and it has become the most common and frustrating threat to many organization and countries - large or small. • These are small programs designed and developed to cause problems in computer and network systems. • Nasty viruses have costs firms millions of dollars in damages or in protection measures. Note: Further readings on viruses on handouts

  11. Redefining Security • What do we protect • Information • Later security include • Privacy • confidentiality, and • Integrity

  12. An Example... “Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao rejected allegations that China stole U.S. nuclear secrets, saying such claims are meant to undermine China-U.S. relations. Meanwhile, a CIA-led task force was assessing how much damage may have been done to U.S. national security after a Chinese scientist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico allegedly shared nuclear secrets.”

  13. Problem: Information Overload Electronic Mail Personal Computer Video Teleconferencing Local Area Networks Distributed Database Satellite Systems Electronic Funds Transfer Cellular Phones E-Commerce

  14. 1. National Level - Information Infrastructure • Education • Energy distribution and supply • Entertainment • Financial • Health care • Information Distribution • National Security, emergency preparedness & public safety • Transportation

  15. Security Requirements • Are driven by threat & vulnerability...

  16. Security terms • Confidentiality - Privacy • Most Governments in the Pacific are still using national / commercialISP email servers for their own email. • Did you know the ISP can read your email? • How do Governments protect individuals privacy from ISPs • Does your Government have adequate policies to protect confidential electronic data / communications?

  17. Security terms • Data Integrity - absolute verification that data has not been altered. “The tribunal in Fiji could not prove the integrity of an email message claimed to be originated from a government employee which stated that one of Fiji’s former Finance Minister ( Mr. Ah Koy) was one of the people behind the Fiji coup in 2000.”

  18. Security terms • Availability - Assurance of service on Demand “A large computer software company (ASI) caught by surprise in Australia, when they could not access most of their services in the network due to an outbreak of the Nirmada virus- September 2001”

  19. Security terms • Authentication - verification of originator • Authorization - only authorized user access to sensitive data

  20. What is at Risk • Banking/Financial • Power and Utility Distribution • Telephone System/Public Switched Network • Stock Exchange/Security Trading • Reserves and Social Security • Governments and Important companies • Research and Development • Air traffic Control system • Schools and higher Institution

  21. Organizational Impact • Compromise And Loss of Data • Loss of Confidence in System • Loss of Money • Loss of Time • Repair or Replacement of Equipment

  22. Consequences • Spectrum includes most functions that constitute the underlying fabric of the nation • Degradation of any of these functions constitute a threat to national security, economic well-being or public safety • Technology to inflict massive disruptions exists and is growing in availability and sophistication

  23. Threats to Computer Systems • Threats by People • Unintentional Employee's Action =>10 - 60% Intentional Employee Action =>15 - 20% • Outside Actions =>1 - 3% • Physical and Environment Threats • Fire damage => 10 - 15% • Water Damage =>1 - 5% • Natural Disaster => 1% • Other => 5 - 10%

  24. Security Threats Human Natural Disasters Malicious Non malicious Flood Fire Earth Quakes Hurricanes Ignorant Outsiders Crackers/Hackers Insiders Disgruntled

  25. Motives and Methods

  26. Some Examples

  27. Some common sabotage • Changing data • Deleting data • Destroying data • Crashing systems • Destroying hardware or facilities • Entering data incorrectly

  28. Malicious attack • Deleting or altering information - revenge or prove a point • Theft and Fraud • Disrupt Normal business

  29. Malicious Attacker “ Last year a disgruntled former employee of ITC (Fiji Information Technology Centre) walked in early one morning to the Suva office, in to the main server room, login to the server and changed all administrative passwords on the servers, and then catch a flight to Australia. ITC staff to their surprised could not logon to any of the system….”

  30. Computer Crime is on the Rise

  31. What is required for an attack Attacks motive method vulnerability = + +

  32. How to gain access...

  33. Hack Attack • Real Hacker Attacks on the increase • thousands of intrusions reported last year • Attacks averaging one or more a day • Intruders now focus on Entire Network rather than individual computer or even systems Most penetrations are not detected

  34. Virus Definitions • trapdoors - A trap door is a hidden software or hardware mechanism included by the author of a software that permits system protection systems to be bypassed. Allow unhindered access to the attacker. • Logic bomb program that causes damage when a certain event(s) takes place. • Trojan Horse - a computer program that looks like a normal program hidden inside another program. Once the valid program runs the hidden code starts and may damaged or delete files - remember “Melissa”

  35. VirusDefinitions • Virus - A program which infects other programs by modifying them to include a copy of itself. • Bacterium - A bacterium sometimes called a “chain letter” is a program which propagates itself by electronic mail to everyone in the victim's mailing list. Very common today • Worm - These are programs that run independently and travel from computer to computer across network connections

  36. The worst Viruses • Melissa • Code Red and many more These virus have cost Companies millions of dollars “The Fiji government main computer systems was affected by the Melissa virus in 2000 disrupting services for almost 2 days .”

  37. Sources of Malicious code infections • Shareware - free software • Commercial Software Packages • Networks - email etc • Sabotage by Employees, terrorists, Crackers, or Spies • Pirated Software • Public Domain Software

  38. How vulnerable are we? “Growing dependence on networks for essential daily activities HIGHTENS Risk”

  39. Network Vulnerabilities • Access by unauthorized users • Lack of physical control • General lack of monitoring/auditing features • Identification of dial in users • Failure to backup critical data • Sensitive to outside interference • Virus infection

  40. National Infrastructure is at risk • Increased Connectivity results in greater Vulnerability • Dependence on unprotected information infrastructure creates serious operational readiness risks • Defense Infrastructure and National Information Infrastructure offer minimal defense against unauthorized access and use

  41. The results….

  42. How do we protect ourselves?

  43. Prevention Prevent information from being damaged, altered or stolen Detection take measures to detect damaged, altered or stolen data, how and who? Reaction take measures that will allow recovery, if data is damaged or lost Protective Measures

  44. Security Standards & definitions INFOSEC - Information Systems Security The protection of information system against unauthorized access to or modification of information, whether in storage, processing, transit, and against the denial of service to authorized users or the provision of services to unauthorized users, including those measures necessary to detect, document, and counter such threats

  45. Security Standards & definitions COMSEC - Communications Security Measures and controls taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications and ensure the authenticity of such as telecommunication, this includes cryptosecurity, transmission, emissions, and physical security of the COMSEC material

  46. Security Standards & definitions COMPUSEC - Computer Security Measures and controls that ensure confidentiality, integrity, availability of information processed and stored in the computer

  47. INFOSEC Concerns • Compromise • The disclosure of information to person(s) not authorized to receive such data • Integrity • The assurance that computer resources operate correctly and that the data is correct • Denial of Service (DoS) • Any action that prevents any part of a system from functioning in accordance with its intended purpose, causing unauthorized destruction, modification, ordelay of service.

  48. Risk Management • INFOSEC is based on Risk “You cannot protect Everything from everybody all the time” RISK = Threat * Vulnerability - Security

  49. Key Question... “How Much is Enough?” The Balancing Act