Poland: Contract Enforcement. World Bank Luba Beardsley National Bank of Poland Jaroslaw Beldowski. Why?. Very long time to enforce a simple contract. Why?. Courts are viewed as slow. Why?. Courts are viewed as weak. Public support.
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National Bank of Poland
Very long time to enforce a simple contract
Courts are viewed as slow
Courts are viewed as weak
In accordance with the Public Opinion Polls on courts conducted from 1998 up to the present time
negative opinions about courts are quite stable – 60% (50% in 1998)
as well as positive ones – 20% (30% in 1998).
Source: Ministry of Finance
PLN: Polish zloty; USD: American dollar
Three-tier court system:
310 district courts (sad rejonowy)
43 regional courts (sad okregowy)
11 appellate courts (sad apelacyjny)
The courts are divided into several divisions, e.g. 120 district commercial courts, 300 land registration courts,
21 business register courts and
10 pledge register courts.
Three basic types of commercial procedures (disputed claims): trial (regular), simplified.
Accelerated proceedings (undisputed claims):
admonition orders (up to around 3000 USD),
Registrations (seperate procedures).
Blaming only courts for the poor contract enforcement in Poland is not fair as there are also other players which are involved in the process. One should not forget about business itself (behavioural patterns shaped by some regulations, e.g. access to information, tax incentives) and legal professions (notaries, advocates/legal councels and bailiffs). It is why the World Bank report has not been limited to the courts, but it has also covered some other issues.
In cooperation with the National Bank of Poland: