Pesticide Formulations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Pesticide Formulations

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  1. Pesticide Formulations ENY 3225 or ENY 5226

  2. Why Formulate Pesticides! • Pesticides are rarely applied in their technical form. • They are usually formulated to improve • Handling • Storage • Application • Effectiveness • Safety

  3. Terminology for Formulations • AI = active ingredient, chemicals that are responsible for the pesticidal effect • Inert ingredient = any substance in a pesticide formulation having no pesticidal action • Formulation = the way a pesticide is prepared for practical use • Carrier = inert liquid or solid added to an active ingredient to prepare a pesticide formulation

  4. Terminology for Formulations • Diluent = any liquid or solid material used to dilute an active ingredient. In liquid formulations, water or oil is used; in dry formulations, talc, clay or other fine dust is used • Emulsifier = a chemical that aids in suspending one liquid in another • Emulsion = a mixture of one liquid in another liquid

  5. Terminology for Formulations • Wetting agent = a chemical which causes a liquid to contact surfaces more thoroughly • Suspension = a mixture of fine solid particles in a liquid • Soluble = dissolves in a liquid • Surfactant = increases the emulsifying, dispersing, spreading, and wetting properties of a formulation

  6. Types of Formulations • Emulsifiable concentrates • Wettable powders • Solution • Dusts • Aerosols • Granular formulations • Baits • Microencapsulated products

  7. Emulsifiable Concentrates • Designated by E or EC • Examples are Dursban 2E, Prevail TC, Gentrol, Dursban Pro, Archer, Dragnet • 2E stands for 2 lbs/gal • AI + solvent + emulsifier = EC • EC + water = emulsion • Emulsion is a fine suspension of oil droplets in water and appears milky in color • They do not require constant agitation prior to each application

  8. Emulsifiable Concentrates • Advantages • Bind well to fabrics and fibers in carpet. • Easy to mix and use • Spreads evenly over foliage • Binds well to soil particles

  9. Emulsifiable Concentrates • Disadvantages • Mild to strong odors • Absorption onto porous surfaces • Potential burning of plant material • Errors in mixing the concentrate with water • Some surfaces such as plastic or tile may be damaged • Can easily penetrate skin

  10. Wettable Powders • Desginated by W or WP • Examples of wettable powders are Demon WP, and Tempo WP • 50WP stands for 50% WP • AI + carrier + wetting agent = WP • WP + water = suspension • Suspensions are fine particles suspended in water • Suspensions require constant agitation prior to each application

  11. Wettable Powders • Advantages • No oil based solvents • Low to no odor • Little hazard of burning plants • Little hazard of penetrating skin • Do not absorb into porous surfaces, when water evaporates, powder sits on surface and is readily picked up by insects

  12. Wettable Powders • Disadvantages • Inhalation of particles while mixing concentrate • Constant agitation of suspension prior to and during application • Large mesh strainer must be used (>50 mesh) in sprayers • Pumps and nozzles can be damaged by abrasion of the particles • Visible residues can occur on dark surfaces

  13. Solution • Technical pesticide + diluent = solution • Designated with SP = Soluble Powder, or SC = Soluble Concentrate • Example Premise SC, Termidor SC, Bora-Care • Advantage is also a solution • Form clear liquids for spraying

  14. Dusts • Designated by D • Examples of dusts are Deltadust, Ficam D, Drione, Sevin D, and malathion D • 5D represents 5% D • Technical pesticide + dry carrier = dust • Dusts cannot be mixed with water and must be applied dry • Common carriers are clay, talc, silica gel, or diatomaceous earth • Some dusts are the insecticide themselves like boric acid or diatomaceous earth

  15. Dusts • Advantages • Long lasting— they often do not break down • Low odor • Easy to apply • Not absorbed into surfaces and are readily picked up by pests • If spilled, dusts can be easily cleaned up

  16. Dusts • Disadvantages • Readily become airborne and can contaminate non-target surfaces • Readily inhaled by the applicator, technicians should wear a respirator for application • Can be abrasive, and eye protection should be worn

  17. Aerosols • AI + solvent + propellent + nozzle = aerosol • Technical insecticide + propellent = aerosol • Examples of aerosols are Wasp Freeze, ULD-BP-50, Ultracide, UltraGuardian • Propellents may be butane

  18. Aerosols • Advantages • Ease of use • Ease of storage • No dilution or storage of concentrates • Disadvantages • Expensive • Odor of solvents • Atomized droplets are easy to inhale and drift to non-target surfaces

  19. Granular Formulations • Designated by G • Technical pesticide + clay = granules • Examples of granular formulations are Dursban G, Talstar G • 2.5G represents 2.5% G

  20. Granular Formulations • Advantages • Low drift • Ease of application • Long residual life outdoors • Disadvantages • Water is required to release the insecticide • Although some manufacturers are overcoming this aspect • Limited to outdoor application • Application equipment must be calibrated often

  21. Baits • AI + food base = bait • Food base can be liquid, meal, seed, pellet, bait block, or gel • Some baits are packaged in childproof bait trays • Examples of baits are MaxForce FC, Siege, Recruit, Drax, Dual Choice, Firstline, Niban, Amdro

  22. Baits • Advantages • Easy to use • Little or no mixing • Readily control pests moving into or out of an area • Disadvantages • Other food sources compete with baits • Very specific for certain species of pests • Can be attractive to children or pets

  23. Microencapsulated products • Often referred to as ME (microencapsulated emulsion), FM (flowable microencapsulated), CS (Capsulated suspension) • AI + plastic polymer + emulsifiers = ME • The capsules enclose the insecticide and protect it from degradation and release the insecticide slowly • Examples of MEs are Demand CS

  24. Microencapsulated products • Advantages • Long term control • Low odor • Safety— if swallowed the capsules do not release the insecticide • No absorption into surfaces • Disadvantages • Require constant agitation • May leave visible residues on dark surfaces • Not effective in wet areas

  25. Fumigants • Gaseous insecticides usually packaged under pressure and stored as liquids • Some are tablets or pellets that release gas when mixed with water • Examples of fumigants are sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane) and methyl bromide (Meth-o-gas), Phostoxin (aluminum phosphide)

  26. Fumigants • Advantages • Toxic to a wide variety of pests • Good penetration of target areas • Single treatment will usually kill al pests in treated area • Disadvantages • Treated area must be closed or tented to prevent gas from escaping • Highly toxic to people

  27. Miscellaneous • Lacquer or paint formulations • Killmaster is 2% Dursban formulated in lacquer. • Lacquers slowly release insecticide to the surface providing long residual • Briquets • Altosid contains methoprene that is slowly released after application for mosquito larvae control