OCLC and FRBR: directions and research results Lorcan Dempseywith contributions from Diane Vizine-Goetz, Ed O’Neill, Thom Hickeyand Eric Childress Revolution or Evolution? The impact of FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) Organized by the Australian Committee on Cataloging. Melbourne Convention Centre, 2 February 2004 !
Overview • FRBR and OCLC • OCLC research work • OCLC production plans • Some issues
FRBR and OCLC • Long standing interest in work-based approaches • The Humphry Clinker problem • Strong practical interest • End-user presentation • ILL • Cataloging – help find records • Collection analysis • Data enrichment
OCLC Research and FRBR • Mining the data … • Ed O’Neill • Algorithmically FRBRizing • Thom Hickey • Work-based prototypes • Diane Vizine-Goetz • Thom Hickey
Mining the data Analyzing representations of a single work in detail. Tested OCLC Research conversion algorithm against 1000 works.
Types of Works • Elemental Works have only a single manifestation (78 %) • Simple Works have only a single expression but multiple manifestations (16 %) • Complex Works have multiple expression (6 %)
Principal Types of Complex Works • Translations • Augmented • Revised • Collected/Selected
Translations • All translations are expressions • Other types of complex works frequently include translations
Typical Augmented Work 48 Expressions 114 Manifestations Expressions created by augmentation with: notes, introductions, illustrations, bibliographies, glossaries, etc. The Expedition of Humphry Clinker
Typical Revised Work 1st and 2nd Editions are by John Phillip Immroth 3rd and 4th editions are by Lois Mai Chan and “Immroth’s” was added to the title
Collected Works • A collection of items each of which is a distinct intellectual or artistic creation; a collection of works • 50% of ‘collected works’ explicitly list component works.
And … • Expressions not clear. • Bring out the differences that matter. • Retrospective activity constrained by available bibliographic data. • Empirical work will support ongoing clarification of the model (Working group on the expression entity)
Algorithmically ‘FRBRizing’ The OCLC Research work set algorithm
Our Approach • Concentrating on work-level • Problems with expression-level clusters • Efficient, maintainable, understandable • Useful matches with correct cataloging • Err on the side of missed matches • Some accommodation of frequent variants (e.g. Shakespeare’s Hamlet = Hamlet) • Compare with manually clustered • Reliable at work level. Expression level not clear enough.
The Algorithm • A key is generated for each record • Extract author, title • Look up in NACO authority file • Added entry information as needed • Form a key from bibliographic record • Author, title, added entry information • These can be sorted, compared
Results • Manual estimate: 1.5 manifestations/work in WorldCat • Algorithm: ~1.27 • 25,000 clusters have >20 records • 415,000 clusters have >4 records • 30% records and 50% of holdings are in a cluster
Work-based prototypes FictionFinderXISBN
FictionFinder • A prototype system of 2.6+ million bibliographic records for fiction clustered according to the OCLC FRBR work set algorithm • Uses the FRBR model to organize, index, and display bibliographic elements of potential interest to users
Fiction Subset • 2,665,662 WorldCat records (fiction indicator) • 1,758,479 work clusters • 1.5 records/cluster • 3,866 clusters have 20 or more records • 50,540 clusters have 5 or more records
Most widely held fiction works Holdings M’stations Key 29,043 692 twain, mark\1835 1910/adventures of huckleberry finn 26,088 1,267 carroll, lewis\1832 1898/alices adventures in wonderland 20,843 640 twain, mark\1835 1910/adventures of tom sawyer 19,410 1,341 defoe, daniel\1661 1731/robinson crusoe 18,566 983 cervantes saavedra, miguel de\1547 1616/don quixote 18,492 836 stevenson, robert louis\1850 1894/treasure island 18,123 526 dickens, charles\1812 1870/christmas carol 18,100 278 crane, stephen\1871 1900/red badge of courage 17,761 525 bronte, charlotte\1816 1855/ Jane Eyre 17,499 332 chekhov, anton pavlovich\1860 1904/short stories
FictionFinder & FRBR • Information that applies to all expressions of a given work, such as summaries, genre terms, and subjects given precedence in work/expression-level screen displays. • Because of the difficulty of consistently identifying expressions, manifestations are organized by language of expression
FictionFinder & FRBR • Some characteristics of an expression, such as expression title, e.g., • Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone v.s • Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone are presented at the Work/Expression level • Other less clear-cut distinctions between expressions & manifestations, such as Braille and electronic book versions are presented at both the Work/Expression level and the Manifestation level.
xISBN • An experimental web service: • xISBN server receives a single ISBN and returns a list of all ISBNs for the work cluster • Designed for machine-to-machine data exchange • Can return list in XML or XHTML • Supports automatic expansion of ISBN searches: • Check user ILL requests against all editions/versions in OPAC • Use xISBN bookmarklet to find local library’s editions when user finds any edition of item on Amazon, etc. • Quickly check OPAC for all editions/versions during selection/acquisitions/gift book processing
xISBN OCLC FRBR Work-Set Algorithm xISBN table builder http://labs.oclc.org/xisbn/1875847634 xISBN server work cluster 1 ISBN 1 ISBN 2 ISBN 3 work cluster 2 ISBN 5 ISBN 6 ISBN 7 work cluster 3 ISBN 8 ISBN 9 ISBN 10 Eucalyptus / Murray Bail 1998 Melbourne : Text Pub. ISBN: 1875847634 • <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> • - <idlist> • <isbn>1875847634</isbn> • <isbn>1860464947</isbn> • <isbn>1860464955</isbn> • <isbn>963859313x</isbn> • <isbn>2221087615</isbn> • <isbn>9532060065</isbn> • <isbn>9657120055</isbn> • </idlist> Eucalyptus 1998 Melbourne : Text Pub. Eucalyptus 1998 London : Harvill Press Eucalyptus 1999 London : Panther Eukaliptusz 1999 Budapest : Ulpius-ház [Hungarian] Eucalyptus 1999 Paris : R. Laffont [French] Eukaliptus 1999 Zagreb : Meandar [Croatian] Ekaliptus 2001 Tel Aviv : Hargol [Hebrew]
Searching for the book on Amazon
LibraryLookup bookmarklet Single ISBN LibraryLookup Is the book at my library? http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1860464955/qid=1075134526/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_10_1/202-6426661-8213436
xISBN bookmarklet Multiple ISBNs LibraryLookup xISBN server Is the book at my library? xISBN http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1860464955/qid=1075134526/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_10_1/202-6426661-8213436 ADDED ADDED ADDED ADDED ADDED
OCLC production plans • FRBR in FirstSearch (end-user searching) • End 2004 as part of broader searching enhancement. • Present users with view most relevent to them (work, manifestation, …) • FRBR and cataloging • Interested in potential for ‘FRBRization’ services • Use FRBR as aid to finding cataloging copy • FRBR view of cataloging yet to be discussed.
Some issues • Data. Variations in cataloging practice and errors or omissions in transcription and input lead to false clusters • Systems. Support in library management and other systems. • Agreement and shared practice. Theoretical discussion needs to be informed by practice. The detail! • Communications format. How to share works etc. Different internal implementations.
Further information www.oclc.org/research Projects Publications ResearchWorks (soon) Software (algorithm)