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M&S in Total Ship Testing: Surface Ship Torpedo Defense

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  1. M&S in Total Ship Testing: Surface Ship Torpedo Defense Presenter: Scott S. Gordon AVW Technologies, Inc. Division Mgr Fleet Material Readiness 860 Greenbrier Circle Suite 305 Chesapeake, VA 23320 www.avwtech.com Phone: 757-361-9581 Fax: 757-361-9585 AVW Technologies, Inc

  2. M&S In Total Ship Testing • Introduction • While supporting Operational Test & Evaluation (OT&E) efforts for a pre-MS B ACAT II Program it was observed that the Navy as a whole does not have an established model for Surface Ship Torpedo Defense (SSTD). • There is no cost effective method to assess the unique contributions of either system introduction or Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) or both combined applications and the net impact or combined effects to the entire PK or PS in defeating incoming threat torpedoes and M&S appears to be the solution. • Outline • Understanding ATTDS OT&E and Implications for M&S • Problem Statement • Strategic Guidance and Acquisition Realities • SSTD & ATTDS M&S Efforts • Other USW M&S in T&E • SSTD M&S Considerations • Recommendations • Summary AVW Technologies, Inc

  3. M&S In Total Ship Testing • Requirements • Most significant Key Performance Parameter (KPP) for ATTDS was PK that was more aligned as a TEFF which has developed into a PS discussion • -Challenge is to assess contribution of each Torpedo Countermeasures (TCM) system or TTP. • USS Anyship Torpedo Countermeasures (TCM) PS = X • (TCM comprised of; maneuver, towed body TCM, Over-the-side acoustic TCM) • USS Anyship with ATTDS PS = Y • (TCM + ATTDS [TDCL+Anti-Torpedo Torpedo]) • Y > X • What are values of each element of TCM? • What are values of each element of ATTDS? AVW Technologies, Inc

  4. M&S In Total Ship Testing • Understanding ATTDS OT&E and Implications for M&S • ATTDS is a Family of Systems (FoS) intended to provide increased survivability (for Increment I CRUDES platforms and eventually Increment II HVU platforms) against threat torpedoes. • It is a combination of POR systems which are to be modified with, Torpedo Detection Classification and Localization (TDCL) system, Tactical Decision Module (TDM), and Anti-Torpedo Torpedo (ATT) which is 6.75 inch diameter torpedo used to damage or destroy incoming threat torpedoes. • Threat Variables: • -Overt or Covert • - Type of torpedoes, active, passive, electric, thermal, size • Salvo size • Threat axis • Quality & reliability of the threat weapons Condition Variables: Multiple scenarios - SVP - Background noise - Shipping density - Operator proficiency - Vessel’s wake characteristics - Available time - Alertment Threat Axis 360o AVW Technologies, Inc.

  5. ATTDS Overview & OT&E Concerns • Threat Variables: • -Overt or Covert • - Type of torpedoes, active, passive, electric, thermal, size • Salvo size • Threat axis • - Quality & reliability of the threat weapons Representative HVU ATTDS TTPs TCM Maneuver Aft Sector TDCL Towed Decoy Condition Variables: Multiple scenarios - SVP - Background noise - Shipping density - Operator proficiency - Vessel’s wake characteristics - Available time - Alertment ATTs # Acoustic Countermeasures Representative CRUDES ATTDS TTPs TCM Maneuver Urgent Attack Quiet Ship MFTA HMS Towed Decoy TDCL # Acoustic Countermeasures ATTs UCLASSIFIED – Generic TTPS and Coverage Sectors

  6. M&S In Total Ship Testing Problem Statement There is no equivalent aggregate M&S effort similar to that of the LPD 17 and Enterprise Probability of Raid Annihilation (PRA) Testbeds that was focused on a similar problem: Surface ship self-defense against Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles (ASCMs). There is a need among all ship classes to better defend against a common threat. AVW Technologies, Inc.

  7. M&S In Total Ship Testing Strategic Guidance and Acquisition Reality CNO acknowledges “Asymmetric use of technology will pose a range of threats to the United States and its partners.”1 regarding Sea Control. Acquisition process for major acquisition programs cannot match the speed of adaptation that our foes have demonstrated. One corrective measures is to apply M&S in Total Ship Testing regarding Torpedo Countermeasures to help reduce the time gap between system or TTP development and fielding. This can be applied Cross-Domains of Acquisition, Analysis, Planning, Testing, and Experimentation - Supports tenets of TASK FORCE ASW (Anti-Submarine Warfare) Concept of Operations for the 21st Century - Supports philosophy of the (Draft) M&S Common Cross Cutting Business Plan 26 Oct 2006 by M&S Coordination Office 1A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower Oct 2007, Pg 7 AVW Technologies, Inc.

  8. M&S In Total Ship Testing • SSTD & ATTDS M&S • There are two primary models supporting the ATTDS Program: • The Penn State Applied Research Laboratory (PSU/ARL) development and use of Technology Requirements Model (TRM) a physics-based undersea warfare digital-simulation package supporting their Anti Torpedo Torpedo (ATT) developmental testing. • TRM has extensive M&S efforts supporting the development, use, and employment of the ATT. • TRM also used for some tactics development applications for the Fleet but is not yet of the pedigree to support OT&E. • NSWC Indian Heads application of their Torpedo Vulnerability Assessment Model (TVAM) an analytical tool used to evaluate the effectiveness of an underwater warhead detonating near or in contact with a threat torpedo. • TVAM has been VV&A’d by COMOPTEVFOR for use in other applications. AVW Technologies, Inc.

  9. M&S In Total Ship Testing • SSTD & ATTDS M&S (continued) • These models generally support Developmental Testing (DT) with some tactic development applications • TRM application used at Surface Warfare Development Group (SWDG) and SUBDEVRON 12 (CSDS 12) for running tactical simulations for development of tactical employment doctrine • . AVW Technologies, Inc.

  10. M&S In Total Ship Testing • Other USW M&S in T&E • ONR’s Torpedo Enterprise Advance Modelingand Simulation (TEAMS) effort established in early 2000. • Aimed at supporting ONR USW Weapons M&S. • Incorporated TRM, WAF, ODIN (U.K.), JMASS, HLA, NAVMSO MS3G • TEAMS effort and architecture appears to have utility for SSTD M&S supporting DT and OT. • PMS 404 and the Submarine Community utilize a combination of M&S combined with ‘stimulators & simulators’ to conduct DT, OT, and exercise rehearsal. • - Coupled with the Weapons Analysis Facility (WAF) [hardware in the loop for torpedoes] at NUWC Newport can demonstrate latest torpedo software prior to Fleet release, to train using weapons against high fidelity threat models (Cassandra) in tactically significant environments • - Utilize the Submarine Multi-Mission Team Trainer (SMMTT) that provides shore- based training for submarine combat control and sonar systems. • - WAF + SMMTT link up with AUTEC for pre-runs for Prospective CO Ops. • - ONI component of a ‘Red Sub’ supporting threat modeling. AVW Technologies, Inc.

  11. M&S in Total Ship Testing SSTD M&S Considerations A SSTD model would help alleviate the limitations of live testing; - Peacetime environmental concerns. - Availability, cost, and fidelity of surrogate / threat emulators. - Availability and cost of surface platforms to conduct tests. - Availability and cost of submarines to conduct tests. - Peacetime firing restrictions either from submarines or surface platforms. - Support ‘edge of the envelope’ shot that would be difficult in ‘live’ testing. AVW Technologies, Inc.

  12. M&S in Total Ship Testing • SSTD M&S Considerations (continued) • Ability and need for a model that is of sufficient fidelity to support the following; • Assess each system and components within the system respective % of contribution to defeating a wide variety of modeled threat torpedoes under a variety of modeled conditions • Full system operations at 100% reliability and availability % (at requirement values) contribution to defeating threat torpedoes • Fully active / passive • Degraded system operations • Passive only • Tail OOC, hull mount only (CRUDES) 11 AVW Technologies, Inc.

  13. M&S in Total Ship Testing • SSTD M&S Considerations (continued) • Individual TTPs % contribution to defeating threat torpedoes • TTPs have inherent system operations included in them , remove system or TTP components, e.g. • Remove Acoustic Countermeasures • Remove TCM/NIXIE operations • Change type of maneuvering profile 12 AVW Technologies, Inc.

  14. M&S in Total Ship Testing OT&E VV&A Capability Model “OT&E requires a model that can represent a Platform w/System features in a realistic environment against an array of real world threats (x & y % tolerances of in-water to modeling variance). Require repeatable M&S runs, require randomness to match randomness of in water environmental conditions… Require ships, systems, multiple threat weapons, in near realistic environment to represent engagements” Spirit of Integrated Testing (IT) will drive planning for OT M&S requirement while ensuring DT M&S requirements are met. 13 AVW Technologies, Inc.

  15. M&S in Total Ship Testing AVW Technologies, Inc.

  16. M&S in Total Ship Testing SSTD Model Construct Key: Model(s) of some fidelity SWDG Model(s) requiring increased fidelity PEO SHIPS Tactics, Technique, Procedure Model(s) assumed available Ship Specific Characteristics Models Model status/availability unknown Maneuver NUWC Newport Threat Torpedo Models (CASSANDRA) HVU Wake, signature, etc. CRUDES Wake, signature, etc. Specific Ship System; Acoustic Countermeasures PSU ARL Indian Head Specific Ship System; Anti-Torpedo Torpedo Model (TRM) Hardware in the loop threat torpedo (WAF) Torpedo Vulnerability Assessment Model (TVAM) Specific Ship System; Towed Countermeasures PSU ARL Interface Layer Human Systems Factors Environmental Models Specific Ship System; Torpedo Detection Classification & Localization (TDCL Model) Ship Specific Vulnerability Model: (VAR Models) Threat Kinematics JHU, Panama City, PSU ARL… Threat Torpedo Launch Platform Models (ONI’s Red Sub) PEO SHIPS NUWC Newport ONI, NUWC Newport AVW Technologies, Inc.

  17. M&S in Total Ship Testing • SSTD M&S Recommendations • DOT&E mandated Integrated Testing (IT) drive NAVSEA Program Managers to develop M&S for DT that would suffice for OT&E for true IT benefits. • ‘Top Down’ NAVSEA support. • Reinvigorate; • 1) Cross Domain M&S Efforts. • 2) ONR’s TEAMS effort. • - PMS 415, COTF, DOT&E members of the Accreditation Review Panel (ARP) & Simulation Control Panel (SCP) evaluate PSU ARL TRM data cache to prove TRM operates with desired tolerances and confidence levels for OT&E M&S pedigree to satisfy Capability Model. • Remove internal NAVSEA blockages from use or sharing of M&S data to support SSTD efforts while ensuring any proprietary rights. AVW Technologies, Inc.

  18. M&S in Total Ship Testing • Summary • There needs to be an alignment of M&S products within NAVSEA for total ship ASuW testing against torpedoes similar the effort that was done to characterize surface ship survivability against ASCM threats. • Models and processes exist that could support the effort. AVW Technologies, Inc.

  19. M&S in Total Ship Testing: Surface Ship Torpedo Defense Presenter: Scott S. Gordon AVW Technologies, Inc. Division Mgr Fleet Material Readiness 860 Greenbrier Circle Suite 305 Chesapeake, VA 23320 www.avwtech.com Phone: 757-361-9581 Fax: 757-361-9585 AVW Technologies, Inc