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Mobile Applications Justin Champion Room C208 - Tel: 3273 MCCS – New Technology Contents Operators offering value added services Changing use of mobile devices Device Technology Mobile Applications MCCS – New Technology

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mobile applications

Mobile Applications

Justin Champion

Room C208 - Tel: 3273

mccs new technology
MCCS – New Technology
  • Contents
    • Operators offering value added services
    • Changing use of mobile devices
    • Device Technology
    • Mobile Applications
mccs new technology3
MCCS – New Technology
  • Operators recognised that data services could make them money
    • 02 worldwide got 17.3% of there income from data transfer

(, 2003)

      • Mostly from SMS usage, but this will change
      • E-commerce is the most likely reason for a change
        • Using a phone like a credit card
      • Possibly e-voting
        • (, 2003)
        • Elections could be help more regularly if it was cheaper and easier to hold them
  • To increase this the devices will have to become more capable
mccs new technology4
MCCS – New Technology
  • Changes will need to take place in
    • Displays
    • Processing
    • Operating Systems
    • Ability to receive data at the correct rate
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Displays
    • The ultimate aim is to provide the information in a clear manner with the minimum of battery usage
      • With the increased use of photo quality images a full palette of colours must be capable of being displayed
      • The resolution must be suitable for close proximity usage
        • Most devices will be held in the hand when being used
      • A number of technologies have emerged as potential solutions
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Displays Continued
    • Liquid Crystal Displays
      • Passive Matrix
      • Active Matrix Thin Film Transistor (TFT)
    • These displays are capable
      • Using low power
      • Displaying at least 64,000 colours
      • Refreshing at a rate for 15 frames a sec with MPEG
        • 25 is the standard frame rate
    • Future general public (In research use now)
      • ThinCRT
      • Light Emitting Polymers
        • Plastics which produce light when an electrical charge is put into them
        • Phillips should have released a version now!
        • Cambridge are carrying out research on this
          • (, 2004)
mccs new technology7
MCCS – New Technology
  • Device Capabilities
    • Technology is moving away from a device that contains all that it needs to work
      • Now the user has a base set of functionality anything additional can then be transferred into the device
      • This allows the customisation of the device with only that which is required.
    • The first step to this is to create an Operating System (OS) that supports add-ons.
    • Each device will only have the functionality that it requires and this can change over time
    • A potential “All in one device” PDA, Phone, Fax machine, games, web surfing, etc.
      • These are here now and will be demonstrated during this course
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Operating System
    • Modular design to allow faster development times
    • Each layer can only communicate with the layer next to it


J2ME Program

C++ Program

Java Virtual Machine

Operating System

Device Hardware

mccs new technology9
MCCS – New Technology
  • Current Device OS’s
    • Symbian, (PSION)
      • Open source anyone can develop for them
      • At this time Symbian is the market leader with new 2.5/3G phones
      • Supported by Nokia and other major manufacturers
        • (, 2004)
    • Palm OS (PSION)
    • Windows Smartphone (Microsoft)
    • Windows Mobile 2003 (Microsoft)
      • Controlled developments by Microsoft
    • Other contenders for future consideration
      • Linux (Red Hat)
      • Openwave
      • Savaje
  • Future
    • Although devices are hoping to share a single transmission medium the development for these devices will be more problematic
      • There will be no single defining OS for devices
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Current Device OS’s
    • Developing application can take place in
      • C++
        • Most manufacturers provide the SDK’s to allow this
        • Issues around the application working on more than one device though
      • Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME)
        • All of the current OS’s support this language
        • In theory a program written once can run on all devices
          • Reality might be slightly different
      • Microsoft .NET
        • Only works on the Microsoft based devices
          • These are limited at the moment
    • A question could be
      • How long before someone develops a virus for a 3G phone ?
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Battery Life
    • The more the processor does and the better the graphics on the display the more battery power this takes
    • A fine line needs to be agreed between quality and battery
      • It is no use having 16 million colours if the battery lasts only a few hours
      • The increased functionality will mean an increase in processor & memory use
        • You can no longer put everything that you want to do in hardware, which is more power efficient
      • Early 3G experiments in Japan gave the devices a 1 hour battery life

(, 2003)

    • Battery size and weight
      • The physical size of battery can not change and neither can the weight as the user expects a certain size of device
mccs new technology12
MCCS – New Technology
  • Current Battery Technology
    • All battery types work in the same way the only change is the metals used to produce the electrons
      • Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd)
      • Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH)
        • Suffers from a memory effect and is not widely used now
      • Lithium-ion battery (LiOn)
  • Future Batteries
    • Fuel Cell
      • Predicted for production in industrial mobile devices by early 2004
      • Instead of recharging the fuel will be replaced in the device
        • The fuel could be either Methanol or Hydrogen
        • This method will work like a rechargeable cigarette lighter
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Other battery saving techniques
    • All of the OS’s have built into them that the device will turn off when not used except for the transmission of phone data.
      • Certain parts of the device are defined as not essential and will be switched off
      • Processors when not fully required will slow down the clock speed to reduce the power drain
      • As a part of 3G standards the device have built in power controllers for transmissions
        • This means that as you are closer to the base station the amount of power used for your transmissions will be reduced
        • The benefits of this technique are more than battery related as will be discussed in a future week
    • We have already looked at the improving situation with the display screens which take a lot of power
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Other battery saving techniques
    • ARM processors released in October 2003
      • Have built into them “Intelligent Energy Manager”
      • This works out how much processor is required for a instruction and reduces the power to the processors accordingly
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Ability to receive data at the correct rate
    • This will be discussed in detail in future weeks
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Applications
    • With the increased computing power uses need to be developed
    • The communications with a device are referred to as Push/Pull
      • Push
        • Information is sent unsolicited to the user
          • This is starting now, with Orange sending out messages
          • Soon junk (SPAM) text messages will become popular
      • Pull
        • Information which you specially request
mccs new technology17
MCCS – New Technology
  • Push Services
    • The same as email in reality but a little more personalised
    • A mobile device is aware of its current location
      • This is a requirement in the US with the Emergency (E-911) law
        • The emergency services need to know to within 50 metres the location of a device
    • Location based services
      • These services have a good use, they can also be used for commercial benefits
        • Services can be directed to you based on where you are
        • “Tell me where the nearest Chinese restaurant is?”
          • The phone then has the capability to show you a map of your current location and the destination
        • This is the logical upgrade to the Yellow Page services
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Location Based continued
    • As you walk past a shop the latest offers can be transferred into your phone.
      • This would rely on a profile being setup that tells the shop that you are interested in such items
    • Issues need considering like personal privacy
      • Do you want anyone to know where you are currently located
      • What else will be done with this information?
      • Becomes a issue of the data protection act
        • Does a phone number stored breach the Data Protection Act ?
          • They have nothing personal on you if the receiving company does not store personal details against this phone number
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Pull Services
    • These you would register for or you physically request at the time.
    • The previous example of the restaurant is a pull service
    • Football results service is a popular current service
  • Future usage
    • In the future companies are hoping that an increased video use will increase revenues
      • Football highlights sent directly to your phone
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MCCS – New Technology
  • Football highlights
    • This will become a issue when large numbers of people start to watch these video sequences
      • Consider if England won the world cup how many people would pay to see the actual goal !
    • An Israeli company is working on a fix for this
      • The build up to the goal as in the 15 seconds before would be sent as vectors
      • You would see the details of the goal as though it is a computer game
      • Just before the actual goal the action would change to real video footage to show the goal and just after
      • This will save massive amounts of the data on the networks
        • New 3G devices all have full capability to render vector based graphics in real time with the minimum of the data transferred
mccs new technology21
MCCS – New Technology
  • Application possibility
    • Any application available on a PC can be done a mobile device
    • The number of applications is limitless
    • As application become more demanding the capabilities of the devices will increase
      • Considerations always need to be given to
        • Battery life
        • Memory capacity
        • Usability with the current small screens
        • Input into the device
mccs new technology22
MCCS – New Technology
  • Summary
    • Why we need advanced devices
    • Available Devices
      • What they support
    • Operating Systems
    • Battery Saving Options
    • Ubiquitous Computing
    • Uses of the services
      • Push
      • Pull