d Mesopotamia Land between two rivers p. 9 Vocabulary Due Tomorrow. Chapter 1 Reading Questions Due Thurs.
Mesopotamia – Land between two rivers City States -Where people lived All were near farming fields -Ziggurat was at center It was like a city hall Cuneiform -Writing system of the Sumerians Polytheism -Many gods were worshiped -Enil – god of storms was the most powerful -Rulers were representatives of gods Hammurabi -Leader of the Sumerians Created a Code of Laws -Posted these laws for all to see Babylonian -Sumerians were conquered and the new capital Empire was in Babylon which is on the Euphrates River
1. What two rivers run through the Fertile Crescent? 2. Which two river valley civilizations are shown on this map? Tigris & Euphrates Rivers Egypt & Mesopotamia 3. In what present day country is Mesopotamia located? Iraq
*NOTES* ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA (4000 B.C.) “land in between the rivers” Why was this a perfect place for the 1st civilization? Fertile Crescent - large arc of fertile land in the Middle East Tigris & Euphrates Rivers made it possible for farming 3. Cattle, pigs, goats & sheep were accessible
*NOTES* WHAT CHALLENGES DID PEOPLE FACE IN MESOPOTAMIA? 1. Unpredictable floods destroyed crops, homes & people 2. Some areas were marshy and unsuitable for farming, few natural resources, 3. This land was vulnerable to attack and invasion
Sumerians invented: • Brick technology • Wheel, sail, plow • Base 60 – using the circle . . . 360 degrees • Time – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute • 12 month lunar calendar • arch • ramp • ziggurat
Religions have attempted to build their sanctuaries on prominent heights. Since no such natural heights were available in the flat flood plains of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), ancient priests and kings determined to build ziggurats, square or rectangular artificial stepped temple platforms. Functionally, temples were placed on raised platforms to give them prominence over other buildings in a city, and to allow more people to watch the services performed at the temple. Symbolically, however, the ziggurat represents the cosmic mountain on which the gods dwell. The priests ascent up the stairway to the temple at the top of the ziggurat represents the ascent to heaven. The great ziggurat at Khorsabad, for example, had seven different stages; each was painted a different color and represented the five known planets, the moon, and the sun. WHAT DOES THIS PASSAGE REVEAL ABOUT THE RELIGIOUS BELIEF OF PEOPLE IN MESOPOTAMIA?
Ziggurat: a multi-storied temple tower from ancient Mesopotamia.
*NOTES* THE MANY PEOPLE OF MESOPOTAMIA: Sumerians (ancient Sumer’s city-states) They developed a writing system called Cuneiform (3000 B.C. - 1800 B.C.) 2.Babylonians (Babylonian Empire) They developed a system of law. ( 1800 B.C. - 1200 B.C. Assyrians (Assyrian Empire) Warlike people that invented siege machines, like battering rams and mobile towers shooting arrows. (1200 B.C. - 539 B.C.) 4. Persians (Persian Empire) The first great empire (539 B.C. - 330 B.C.)
HW: Discuss the importance of water to the people of the Middle East. How has climate and topography of the Middle East effect how people lived?