Mandated Reporting CHILD ABUSE & NEGLECT
Caution The following presentation contains graphic photos of general neglect, severe neglect, physical abuse, substance abuse, and failure to thrive incidents.
Mandated Reporting • The California Penal Code mandates that certain professionals are required to report suspected child abuse or neglect • These professionals are called Mandated Reporters • Mandated reporters include a variety of persons that work with children (any child care custodian)
Reporting Child Abuse • Remember that reporting child abuse does not mean physical intervention or snooping. • It simply means not ignoring the obvious.
(a) Physical abuse (b) Neglect (c) Emotional abuse (d) Sexual abuse (e) Severe physical abuse of children under five (f) Parent caused death of a sibling (g) Parent’s failure to support (h) Legal orphan (i) Cruelty (j) Other siblings neglected, child at risk What is Child Abuse and Neglect?Welfare & Institutions Code 300 (a) – (j)
(a) Physical Abuse • Serious physical abuse inflicted non-accidentally. • Must be by the child's parent or guardian. • Substantial risk of serious future injury. • History of repeated injuries on the child or siblings. • Does NOT include reasonable and age-appropriate spanking to the buttocks. • Does NOT include fights between like-age minors.
Physical Abuse Physical abuse may be suspected when the child: • Has unexplained burns, bites, bruises, broken bones, or black eyes • Has fading bruises or other marks noticeable after an absence from school or daycare • Seems frightened of the parents and protests or cries when it is time to go home • Shrinks at the approach of adults • Reports injury by a parent or another adult caregiver
Physical Abuse Physical abuse may be suspected when the parent or adult caregiver: • Offers conflicting, unconvincing, or no explanation for the child’s injury • Describes the child as “evil” or in some other very negative way • Uses harsh punishment or physical discipline with the child • Has a history of abuse as a child
Continued… Physical Abuse/Bruises
Continued… Physical Abuse/Burns
(b) Neglect • Failure to adequately supervise or protect the child. • Failure to protect from the conduct of others. • Failure to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter, or medical treatment. • Inability to provide care due to mental illness, developmental disability, or substance abuse. • Medical decision made after consultation with a physician does NOT constitute neglect.
Neglect • Two types • General neglect • Basic necessities • Severe neglect • Medical necessities • Injury
Caution– The assessment of child neglect requires consideration of cultural values and standards as well as the recognition that the failure to provide the necessities of life may be related to poverty Neglect
Neglect Neglect may be suspected when the child: • Is frequently absent from school • Begs or steals food or money • Lacks needed medical or dental care, immunizations or glasses • Is consistently dirty and/or severe body odor • Lacks sufficient clothing for weather • Abuses alcohol or other drugs • Lacks supervision, especially in dangerous activities or for long periods of time
Neglect Neglect be suspected when the parent or other caregiver: • Appears to be indifferent to the child • Seems apathetic or depressed • Behaves irrationally or in a bizarre manner • Abuses alcohol or other drugs
Neglect What Is This?
Severe Neglect • Severe Neglect • The refusal of or delay in seeking medical care • Driving with the child while intoxicated • Abandonment • Refusal to allow a runaway to return home • Inadequate supervision that causes injury
(c) Emotional Abuse • Serious emotional damage. • Child must exhibit severe anxiety, depression, withdrawal, aggressive behavior toward self or others. • Must be a result of the conduct of the parent or guardian. OR • Parent or guardian is not capable of providing appropriate care.
Emotional Abuse • Emotional Abuse • Psychological abuse, verbal abuse and mental injury • Includes acts or omissions by the parent or other caregiver that causes, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or mental disorders • Difficult to prove
Emotional Abuse Emotional abuse may be suspected when the child: • Shows extremes in behavior, such as overly compliant or demanding behavior, extreme passivity, or aggression • Displays inappropriately adult behavior (for example, parenting other children) • Displays inappropriately infantile behavior (for example, frequently rocking or head-banging) • Is delayed in physical or emotional development • Reports lack of attachment to parent
Emotional Abuse Emotional abuse may be suspected when the parent or adult caregiver: • Constantly blames, belittles, or berates the child • Is unconcerned about the child and refuses to consider offers of help for the child’s problems • Overtly rejects the child
(d) Sexual Abuse • Parent sexually abuses child or substantial risk of sexual abuse. • Parent fails to protect from sexual abuse they should have reasonably known about. • Promotes, aids, assists, employs, uses, persuades, induces, or coerces a child, in prostitution, live performance, pose or model involving obscene sexual conduct. • Includes penetration, oral sex, objects into genitals, touching. • Any act which is for sexual arousal or gratification. • Sexual exploitation—child pornography, prostitution. • NOT normal caretaker responsibilities or demonstrations of affection.
Sexual Abuse Sexually abused children may develop the following: • Unusual interest in or avoidance of all things of a sexual nature • Seductiveness • Eating disorders • Self-injury • Secretiveness • Unusual aggressiveness • Suicidal behavior
Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse may be suspected when the child: • Has difficulty walking or sitting • Suddenly refuses to change for gym or to participate in physical activities • Has nightmares or bedwetting • Experiences a sudden change in appetite • Demonstrates bizarre, sophisticated, or unusual sexual knowledge or behavior • Runs away • Reports sexual abuse by a parent or other adult caregiver
Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse may be suspected when the parent or other caregiver: • Is unduly protective of the child or severely limits the child’s contact with other children • Is secretive and isolated • Is jealous or controlling
Sexual Abuse Who responds initially to: • Out of home sexual abuse (i.e. sports coach) • Law Enforcement • Referral to Child Welfare Services for assessment and/or community services, HOPES • In-home sexual abuse (i.e. mother’s boyfriend) • Joint response • Child Welfare Services • Law Enforcement
(e) Physical Abuse, Child Under Five • Child is under the age of five. • Severe physical abuse by a parent or parent reasonably should have known. • Single act could cause permanent disfigurement, disability, or death. • Physical abuse causes significant bleeding, deep bruising, or significant external or internal swelling. • More than one act of physical abuse, each causes bleeding, deep bruising, significant swelling, fracture, unconsciousness. • Willful, prolonged failure to provide adequate food.