Macro-climate. Radiation, wind, precipitation, Coriolis force Effects of latitude, land & water, maritime climate, topography, etc. Rainshadow effect Major biome: desert, grassland, forest, taiga, tundra. What aspect of environmental factors is relevant?.
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Hs =Hm± Hcd± Hcv± Hr±He
Hs =Hcd± Hcv± Hr
Hs = Hcd± Hcv± Hr
Dark pigment, cushion growth form, hug the ground, change orientation
retain dead leaves
dense and thick pubescence
retaining large amount of water to store heat
close over the apical buds at night
E = cm0.67
E1/ h1 > E2/ h2, eat E2
if E2 / h2 > E1/(S1 + h1) or S1> (E1h2 / E2) - h1