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Chemical Engineering and Chemistry: Education in a changing World Jetse C. Reijenga "Methodology of Teaching Experimental Chemistry" Dept. Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Eindhoven University of Technology The Netherlands for University of Belgrade, December 2005.

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slide1

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry:

Education in a changing World

Jetse C. Reijenga

"Methodology of Teaching Experimental Chemistry"

Dept. Chemical Engineering and Chemistry

Eindhoven University of Technology

The Netherlands

for University of Belgrade, December 2005

slide2

9 Depts, 10 (3-year) Bachelor programs 19 (2-year) Master programs (English)

Chem Eng & Chemistry:

20 profs, 75 research staff

50 postdocs

200 support staff

500 students, 150 PhD

Eindhoven University of Technology

(founded 1956)

slide3

Contents

  • Some Trends in Science, Research, Industry
  • Changing Demands on Education
  • Topic 1: Multi Disciplinary Projects
  • Topic 2: Experiment Simulations
      • Chemical engineering example
      • Chemistry examples
  • Conclusions
  • Discussion
slide4

Trends in Science and Engineering

Source: http://scholar.google.com

slide5

Citations Explosion

Source: Chemical Abstracts Service

slide6

From Generalists to super Specialists

Source: Derek Price (1986) cited on http://www.lib.lsu.edu/collserv/lrts/ST2.html

slide7

Trends in Research and Communication

  • Increased awareness for industrial application
  • Computation: increased modelling capabilities
  • Paper  electronic journals
  • Explosion of number of specialized journals
  • Search engines
  • Letters  e-mails
  • Local  global facilities
  • Local  off-line or real-time long-distance cooperation
slide8

Trends in Employment and Industry

  • Mono  Multi Disciplinarity
  • Individual  Team work
  • Boundaries disappear: global companies, EU expansion

Employment of Chemical Engineers in the USA vs. PhD year

Source: E.L. Cussler and J. Wei, A.I.Ch.E. Journal, 2003, 49(5), 1072-1075

slide9

From the old paradigm…..

Source: C. Moore (Pfizer R&D), AIChE Process Development Symposium (June 2003)

slide10

.….to the new paradigm

Source: C. Moore (Pfizer R&D), AIChE Process Development Symposium (June 2003)

slide11

Changing Demands in Education

  • Facts  knowledge, skills
    • where to get & how to select info
  • Skills  competences, experience
  • Skills related to use of Information Technology
  • Isolated cases  integrated approach
  • Guided exercise  problem oriented approach
  • Passive  active educational setting
  • Individual  team work
  • Mono-disciplinary  multi-disciplinary teams
  • Internationalization: master programs in English
  • Multi cultural aspects
  • "Final" exam and diploma  life-long learning

Sources: Industrial contacts and alumni surveys

slide12

Educational Settings

  • Lectures (individual)
  • Instructions (individual)
  • Guided self-study (individual)
  • Exams (written & oral) (individual)
  • Term paper (individual)
  • Research assignments (individual)
  • Industrial internship (individual*)
  • Practicals (2 students*)
  • Real group work (4-8 students)

Source: http://w3.chem.tue.nl/en/

slide14

Multi-disciplinary Project Work - goals

  • Cooperate in a team with students with different specialization
  • Deal with practical problems (problem definition and analysis)
  • Combine existing technical knowledge
  • Locate and acquire new information
  • Independently incorporate non-technical aspects (any…)
  • Project work (planning, phasing, monitoring progress, costs…)
  • Communicative & inter-cultural aspects
  • unit has 8 ECTS credit points during 1 semester in Master

Source: http://www.ifp.tue.nl and http://chem.tue.nl/6Z003

slide15

Multi-disciplinary Project Work - setup

  • A multi-disciplinary study is proposed by a Client
  • Client is a company executive or university professor
  • The study can be:
    • Literature study
    • Feasability study
    • Scenario study
    • Prototype design
  • The group process is monitored by a Tutor
  • Tutor is a PhD student at the Department
  • The grading relates to the project result but also to group process
  • Group delivers project plan, 2 presentations, 2 reports, website

Source: J.C. Reijenga, L.J.Asselbergs, Inter disciplinary Cooperation in Engineering Science Education, in 6th International Conference on Education, Athens (2004)

slide16

Multi-disciplinary Project Work - examples

  • A new type of oxinitride glass was developed: investigate future areas of application
  • The pollution of fresh water by the Bengali leather and textile industry - No Time To Waste
  • Design a pipeless batch plant for emulsion polymerization
  • Make an inventory of sustainability of photographic techniques in historical context
  • Design, construct and test a refrigerator on solar cells (this was a cyber-cooperation with NUS students)

Source: project websites on http://students.chem.tue.nl

slide17

International cooperation

J.C. Reijenga, H. Siepe, L.E. Yu, C.-H. Wang, Chem. Eng. Educ. 37(2), 14-19 (2003)

slide18

Experiment Simulations

Experiments

Bridging the Gaps……

Theoretical Concepts

Multi disciplinary Projects Industrial Internships

Real Life Situation

slide19

Experiments or……………..?

  • Experiments:
  • Are expensive
  • Can fail (are not always student-proof….)
  • Are time consuming
  • Require safety precautions and chemicals
  • Are restricted to specific laboratory hours & locations
  • BAD idea: replace all experiments with simulations
  • BETTER idea: simulations as preparation for real experiments
slide20

"equipment"

Theoretical model

Equipment parameters

Data

Simulations - purposes

Making the black box ….. transparent

Visualize theoretical concepts Animate processes

Sources: http://www.po.gso.uri.edu/dynamics/WBC/tmovie10.html and

H. McNair, Basic Liquid Chromatography, http://hplc.chem.shu.edu/HPLC

slide21

demonstration classroom teaching

practical training in (dry) lab as step towards optimization

Simulations - applications

slide22

You get more students and less budget, what do you do

Simulation - Chem. Engineering example

3-phase batch reaction

  • Glucose in water is oxidized at constant pH, temperature, using a Pd/C catalyst and oxygen from air in a 1 litre CSTR
  • Conversion is monitored using automated titration with NaOH
  • 50% conversion typically 1 hour (……waiting time)
  • Equipment typically costs 10000 euro

Interesting parameters: temperature, pH, initial concentration, stirring speed, air flow (O2/N2 ratio) and the amount and type of catalyst (e.g. solid spheres, totally porous)

slide24

Simulation - Chemistry example

Virtual lab of analytical separation techniques

Database

Source: http://edu.chem.tue.nl/ce

slide29

HPLC simulator specs #1

UV 200 - 400 nm & RI

75 sample

components

0 - 65 oC

Source: J.C. Reijenga, J. Chromatogr. A 903 (2000) 41-48

slide30

HPLC simulator specs #2

5 - 500 mm

1 - 10 mm

1 - 25 µm

MeOH

ACN

Source: J.C. Reijenga, J. Chromatogr. A 903 (2000) 41-48

slide31

HPLC simulator extensions

  • Lichrospher100 RP18 5µm
  • Lichrospher100 CN 5µm
  • Spherisorb ODS-2 5µm
  • Aluspher100 RPSelectB 5µm
  • TSKgel Super ODS
  • ChromolithPerformance RP C18e
  • 3 (4) parameter model
  • Valid 5 - 90%
  • source: ChromSword

Source: J.C. Reijenga and M. Hutta, J. Sep. Science, submitted october 2005

slide36

ProteinLab

  • heat treatment
  • gel filtration
  • ammonium Sulphate fractionation
  • ion exchange chromatography
  • hydrophobic interaction chromatography
  • preparative isoelectric focusing
  • affinity chromatography
  • 1D and 2D PAGE for purity check

Source: http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/chem/staff/elaborate/packages/

slide37

view the dynamics of separation…………

Simulations - from macro to micro

  • so far: simulation of detector signals as final result
  • zoom in on time scale - from minutes to milliseconds
  • zoom in on distance scale:
    • from meters to millimeters (during separation in column)
    • from millimeters to micrometers (boundary layer effects)
    • from micrometers to nanomaters (molecular level details)

Source: http://www.cofc.edu/~kinard/Applets/ChromatographyAnimation.gif

slide38

CZE/ITP

Source: http://edu.chem.tue.nl/ce/stackweb/

title

slide39

Simul 4.0

Source: B. Gas (Prague) on http://prfdec.natur.cuni.cz/~gas/

slide40

j.c.reijenga@tue.nl

Conclusions

  • Group work bridges the gap Theory - Real Life Situation
    • work on communication skills
  • Simulations help bridging the gap Theory - Experiments
    • work on information technology skills
  • Points for discussion
  • The world changes, change with it!
  • There's no change without effort, time and money!
  • Threat or opportunity?
  • Giant steps or small steps?
  • Isolation, competition or cooperation?