Layers of the earth
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Layers of the Earth. Geosphere. The Earth as a System. Integrated system of rock, air, water, and living things. This system is divided into four parts: atmosphere (air) hydrosphere (water) biosphere (living things) geosphere (rock). Geosphere.

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The earth as a system
The Earth as a System

  • Integrated system of rock, air, water, and living things.

  • This system is divided into four parts:

    • atmosphere (air)

    • hydrosphere (water)

    • biosphere (living things)

    • geosphere (rock)


Geosphere
Geosphere

  • Solid part of the Earth’s crust that consists of all rock, and the soils and sediments on Earth’s surface.

  • Most located in Earth’s interior


Earth s interior
Earth’s Interior

  • Seismic Waves: the waves that travel through the Earth’s interior during an earthquake.

  • Altered by the type of material that it travels through.


Seismologists
Seismologists

  • Scientists who measure changes in these waves to determine that the earth’s interior is made in layers.


Composition of the earth
Composition of the Earth

  • Three layers:

    • crust

    • mantle

    • core

  • Density increases towards the center of the Earth


Crust
Crust

  • Thin, outer layer.

  • Made up of light elements

  • less than 1% of Earth’s mass

  • 5-70km thick


Mantle
Mantle

  • Layer beneath the crust

  • 64% of mass of Earth

  • 2,900 km thick

  • Made of

    • lithosphere

    • asthenosphere

    • mesosphere


Lithosphere
Lithosphere

  • Outer layer

  • cool, rigid

  • divided up into huge tectonic plates


Asthenosphere
Asthenosphere

  • 250 km thick

  • solid, plastic layer made of rock

  • flows very slowly and allows tectonic plates to move across


Mesosphere
Mesosphere

  • 2,250 km thick

  • “middle” sphere

  • lower part of mantle


Layers of the earth
Core

  • 3,248 km radius

  • sphere of hot, dense nickel and iron

  • 4,000 - 5,000 °C

  • 1/3 of the Earth’s mass

  • Made of

    • Outer Core

    • Inner Core


Layers of the earth


First life
First Life??? nickel and iron

  • First life may have first evolved deep in the crust and then migrated to the surface when conditions became favorable.

  • “extremophiles”

  • Hypothesized that the biomass below the surface far exceeds the biomass at the surface.


Layers of the earth