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Language and the Reading Puzzle. Virginia A. Mann Dept. Of Cognitive Sciences University of California, Irvine vmann@uci.edu brainconnection.com. What makes them err? in decoding in comprehension What can be done?. Why are poor readers, poor readers ?. ERRORS IN WRITING.

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language and the reading puzzle

Language and the Reading Puzzle

Virginia A. Mann

Dept. Of Cognitive Sciences

University of California, Irvine

vmann@uci.edu

brainconnection.com

what makes them err in decoding in comprehension what can be done
What makes them err?

in decoding

in comprehension

What can be done?

Why are poor readers, poor readers?

slide3

ERRORS

IN

WRITING

Reversals?

Spelling errors?

Missing words?

errors in reading
ERRORS IN READING:

POOR DECODING:

Recovering the spoken words that written words ‘stand for’

Basics: vocabulary

phoneme awareness

morpheme awareness

A limit on fluency

decoding problems
Decoding Problems

Poor

readers

Average

readers

Superior

readers

errors in reading6
ERRORS IN READING

WORKING MEMORY

Temporarily retaining an ordered series of words, syllables, etc.

Basics:in both reading and listening

a bottleneck on comprehension

slide7

Working Memory Errors

Smith, Mann and Shankweiler 1986

language and the reading puzzle8
Language and the Reading Puzzle

Vocabulary

& Early

Language

Vocabulary

& Early

Language

Working memory

vocabulary early language
Vocabulary & Early Language

Vocabulary

& Early

Language

written language transcribes spoken language
Written Language Transcribes Spoken Language

Readers start as

speakers and hearers

Reading suffers

if spoken language is weak

Weak language can have both

genetic and environmental origins

slide11

Language, SES and Reading

Cumulative Effects of Language Experience

Effects of Low Language Development on Reading

45 Million Words

High SES

High Oral Language in Kindergarten

5.2 years difference

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Reading Age Level

26 Million Words

Middle SES

Estimated Cumulative Words

(In Millions)

Low Oral Language in Kindergarten

13 Million Words

Low SES

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Chronological Age

12 24 36 48

Age of Child (In Months)

  • SOURCE: Loban (1967); Hirsch (1996)
  • SOURCE: Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children by Betty Hart & Todd R. Risley. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. (1995)
slide12

An Environment of Poor Reading

The Real OC:

Santa Ana, CA

Highest in:

High school dropout

Household Density

Poverty

Speakers of Spanish

consequences of low education
Consequences of low education:

Less income:37 cents per dollar

A shorter life:dying 9 years earlier

1% decrease in the dropout rate:

100,000 fewer crimes

400 fewer murders

$1.4 million annual savings

LA Times 1/29/06

what can be done
What can be Done?

Improve the schools?

Work before school starts?

help parents fulfill their role

as their children’s first teachers

Home-based Activities

Building Language Acquisition

2 ways to optimize the home environment
2ways to optimize the home environment

1. Coach parents to

Be more responsive, positive and engaged

exercise children’s spoken language skills

Use complex language

Ask and listen

2. Coach parents to

enrich the home literacy environment

use dialogic reading

habla speak for school success
HABLA: ‘Speak!’ for School success

A Spanish language program:

two years of home visits (92 visits)

Increases verbal interaction between parents and 2-4 yr old children

Easily-learned, developmentally appropriate methods of play

Books and toys that stay in the home

(Levenstein et al, 2002)

habla as cost effective
HABLA as Cost Effective:

1 year of HABLA: $1500

1 year of preschool: $6000

An extra year of school: $6000

Each year of Special Education: $12,000

Cumulative loss of social capital: PRICELESS

slide21

Positive Gains in Early Language:

Without HABLA

Mann et al, 2007

mathematics in preschool
Mathematics in Preschool:

HABLA

English

Spanish

letters in preschool
Letters in Preschool

HABLA

English

Spanish

slide24
A high tech approach to both genetic and environmentally based problems:

FastForWordproducts

Neuroscience

F.A.S.T. Power learning formula:

Frequency & intensity, Adaptivity,

Simultaneous development, Timely motivation

Cognitive Science

A scope and sequence of materials that build foundational cognitive and language skills progressively

fast forword reading
Fast ForWord Reading
  • Builds vocabulary
  • builds connections between written and spoken words
  • Builds flexibility
  • Builds fluency through repeated reading

A series of products

that targets all levels

of reading

from decoding

to comprehension

why phoneme awareness matters decoding words
Why Phoneme Awareness Matters? Decoding Words

Poor

readers

Average

readers

Superior

readers

the units of language
The units of language

1 sentence

6 words

7 syllables

15 phonemes

…12-13 in the South…

20 letters

“Are you here as a teacher?”

slide33

Letters represent phonemes but these are

        • abstract Mental Units
        • not SoundBites
  • To understand the ABC’s
        • Children must be aware of phonemes
        • Seeing how c-a-t spells ‘cat’ takes
        • a kind of mental surgery
activities that require phoneme awareness
Activities that Require Phoneme Awareness:

Judgment:

What has a different first sound?

bag baby cat ball

Manipulation:

Say ‘brake’ without the first sound

rake

the antecedents of phoneme awareness
The Antecedents of Phoneme Awareness?

Production and Perception of Speech

Exposure to literacy activities (verse and word play, the ABC’s, shared reading)

Mann and Foy, 2001-2007

activities that promote phomeme awareness
Activities that promote phomeme awareness

Learning the ABC’s

especially letter sounds

Matching or Sorting words

by phonemes

Manipulating phonemes

Blending

phoneme awareness predicts early reading success
Phoneme Awareness Predicts Early Reading Success

Highlyaware

Avg.

Least aware

Phoneme awareness

in October

Reading Ability 6 months later

Shah and Mann, 2000

slide38

A Cautionary Note

Intervention and training must be:

lengthy, explicit and intensive

slide39
HowFastForWord Reading

Builds Phoneme Awareness:

Some Examples

morphemes and english 1 spelling and meaning
Morphemes and English: 1) Spelling and Meaning

to, too, or two?

there, their or they’re?

it’s or its?

morphemes and english 2 suffixes and decoding
Morphemes and English:2) Suffixes and Decoding

HEAL HEALTH

SIGN SIGNIFY

ELECTRIC ELECTRICITY

morphemes aid comprehension yet complicate decoding
Morphemes aid comprehension yet complicate decoding

REACT

REDO

REPLAY

REPAY

REACH

REAL

REIGN

REALM

measuring morpheme awareness
Measuring Morpheme Awareness

The Cloze Task:

She is very _______

active activate activation activize

lorialize lorial lorify lorialism

morphemes early reading ability
Morphemes: Early Reading Ability

Singson, Mahony & Mann, 2000

morphemes the bigger picture
Morphemes:The Bigger Picture

Poor 3rd 4th 5th 6th Avg.

Adult grade Adult

slide57
Speakers and readers need working memory:

To understand sentences with

Nouns separated from their verbs

Embedded clauses

pronouns separated from antecedents

To unify paragraphs

consequences in the classroom
Consequences in the classroom?

Problems with comprehension:

following directions

multiple choice tests

paragraphs

pronouns

embedded clauses

For written material this is exaggerated by slow labored decoding

slide60
HowFastForWord Reading

Builds Working Memory:

Some Examples

early language vocabulary phonemes morphemes and working memory matter in
Early language, Vocabulary, Phonemes, Morphemes and Working Memory matter in:

All language use

The alphabet and decoding

Comprehension

Reading intervention

slide65

Reading intervention?

Language Awareness:

Phonemes and Morphemes

Literacy

Experiences

Verse, ABC’s

Reading

Language

Skills:

Working Memory

Vocabulary

solutions to the problem
Solutions to the Problem:

Coach parents

Use science and technology to build products for the schools

slide67

A CIRCUIT FOR SUCCESS

SCHOOLS

Science &

Technology

FAMILIES

2007 research
2007 Research

Bill Jenkins, Ph.D.

Professor Michael Merzenich, Ph.D.

Steve Miller, Ph.D.

Professor

Paula Tallal, Ph.D.

Melissa Agocs

Logan De Ley, M.S.

Rebecca Buffum, M.S.

Barbara Calhoun, Ph.D.

Stefanie Lim

Andrew Ostarello, M.S.

Gretchen Donehower, Ph.D.

UC - Berkeley

Marty Burns, Ph.D.

Virginia Mann, Ph.D.

UC - Irvine