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Infrared in Organometallic compounds. Index. IR-basics. Introduction. IR is one of the first technique inorganic chemists used (since 1940). Molecular Vibration. Newton’s law of motion is used classically to calculate force constant. r.

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introduction
Introduction

IR is one of the first technique inorganic chemists used (since 1940)

Molecular Vibration

Newton’s law of motion is used classically to calculate force constant

r

The basic picture : atoms (mass) are connected with bonding electrons. Re is the equilibrium distance and F: force to restore equilibrium

F

F

re

F(x) = -kx where X is displacement from equilibrium

analyzing inorganic molecules by ir
Analyzing inorganic molecules by IR
  • With IR, we might be able to determine the number of atoms in a group
  • Distinguish MX2 and MX3 groups
  • We might distinguish monodentate from bidentate sulfate
  • We might distinguish terminal from bridging CO ligands
  • We can use variation in CO stretching frequency in metal carbonyl to make deduction about electronic nature of the other ligands
bond stretching frequencies
Bond Stretching Frequencies

Vibration frequency of a bond depends on the mass of bonded atoms and on the force constant of the bond

  • Stretching Frequency is lower for heavier atoms
  • Stretching Frequency is lower for weaker bonds
  • Stretching Frequency vary over a narrow range for a set of related compounds

General Principle:

bond stretching frequencies hydrogen
Bond Stretching Frequencies: Hydrogen

Hydrogen: all bond stretch occur in the range:

4000 to 1700 cm-1 (for H-F down to H-Pb)

Going down any main group in periodic table increase the mass

And decrease the bond strength

=> Lowering stretching Frequency

From Left to right along a row: the effect of increasing the massis outweighed by the increase in Bond strenght

=> Frequency increase

bond stretching frequencies hydrogen1
Bond Stretching Frequencies: Hydrogen

Increase (cm-1)

Decrease (cm-1)

bond stretching frequencies other nuclei
Bond Stretching Frequencies: other nuclei

Stretching of bonds not involving Hydrogen are lower (below 1000 cm-1)

Except for multiple bond with higher force constant

Or for single bond involving nuclei in the first row (C-F, B-O)

bond stretching frequencies carbonyl
Bond Stretching Frequencies: Carbonyl

Important group of frequencies is due to Carbonyl ligand in Metal complex

  • Terminal CO correlate with electron-righness of the metal
  • Backbondingfrom the d-orbital of the metal to the p* antibonding orbitalweaken CO bond => lower stretching frequency (from free CO)
bond stretching frequencies carbonyl1
Bond Stretching Frequencies: Carbonyl

Co (CO)(NO)(PClXPh3-X)2

Table illustrating how the electronegative Chlorine on Phosphorus ligand decrease the electron density on Cobalt (central atom) Decreasing d -> p* backbonding  raising CO and NO

patterns of group frequencies carbonyl
Patterns of group Frequencies: Carbonyl

Clearly defined group frequencies like CO are very important in determining how many of the group occur in each molecule and symmetry relationship between them

  • There is 1 stretching mode for each bond in a molecule in principle we can count the number ofCO frequencies (caution as some vib. Might not be active in IR)
  • Symmetry relating equivalent groups govern the activity of variousstretching mode in IR and Raman
  • If there is a rotation axis relating three or more CO ligands, the number of bands will be less than the number of ligands: some are degenerated,
patterns of group frequencies carbonyl1
Patterns of group Frequencies: Carbonyl

Has only 2 CO bands: provided that the ligand preserves M(CO)3 3 fold symmetry

cis-octahedral complex

The 2CO trans to each other can be treated together

The 2CO cis to each other can be treated together

There are Sym. And Asym stretch for both groups

=> Therefore there are 4 CO stretch expected

trans-octahedral complex

The 4CO are all related by symmetry

=> There is only one active vibration in IR

group frequencies type of binding
Group Frequencies: Type of Binding

Many ligands hae different modes of binding to other atoms

Terminal

Bridging

Triple Bridge

2130 – 1700 cm-1

1900 – 1780 cm-1

1900 – 1780 cm-1

We can therefore state: COabove 1900 =>terminal CO

Below 1900 : Can be due to bridging CO or terminal COwith unusual reduction of CO strenght (d -> p* back bonding)

group frequencies type of binding1
Group Frequencies: Type of Binding

For example: Ru3(CO)12 : CO 2060, 2030, 2010 cm-1only

=> Ru(CO)4 units held together by Ru-Ru bonds

Another example: Fe3(CO)12 : CO 2040, 2020, 1997, 1840 cm-1

Iron complex has bridging CO as well as terminal CO

halogens type of binding
Halogens: Type of Binding

Halogens may also act as bridging/terminal ligands (e.g. Al2Cl6)

  • Study compounds of known structure that has terminal M-X
  • Study compounds that has bridging ligands

From the above observations, determine the presence / absence

Of bridging in a new compound

polyatomic ligands type of binding
Polyatomic ligands: Type of Binding

Polyatomic ligands can attach at different donor site.

Monothioacetate ligand

Case 1

Through Oxygen only

Case 2

Through Sulfur (1-2 metal)

Case 3

Through both Sulfur and Oxygen

Through Sulfur one M and

Oxygen through other M

Case 4

polyatomic ligands type of binding1
Polyatomic ligands: Type of Binding

Case 2

The only one that have C=O : 1600 cm-1

The C=S : Is less characteristic: weaker and in more crowded region

Band near 950 cm-1 indicate case 1

Case 1

Involve chelating and bridging ligands: yield slightly reduced frequency of both stretch:

Case 3

Case 4

and

~ 1500 cm-1 for CO

~ 900 cm-1 for CS

isotopic substitution to interpret vibrational spectra
Isotopic substitution: to interpret vibrational spectra
  • Vibrational frequency depend on Masses of moving atoms
  • Deuterium substitution produce large mass increase => large frequency decrease by up to 0.717 (1/√ 2)
  • M-H stretching decrease by several hundred cm-1 by replacing M-D
  • This substitution can be used to remove M-H bands where they may hide other bands

Example: Co(CO)4H :

4 IR bands ~ 2000 cm-1

Only the lowest one shift when D replace H

isotopic substitution to interpret vibrational spectra1
Isotopic substitution: to interpret vibrational spectra

Example: Co(CO)4H :

4 IR bands ~ 2000 cm-1

Only the lowest one shift when D replace H

isotopic substitution to interpret vibrational spectra2
Isotopic substitution: to interpret vibrational spectra

For other nuclei than Hydrogen, the mass changes are small: only few cm-1 change

Naturally occuring isotope mixture and isotopically enriched mixture can give useful information

For Cl, the relative shift Dn/n is less than 0.5 (Dm/m), which is resolvable if the bands is narrow

isotopic substitution to interpret vibrational spectra3
Isotopic substitution: to interpret vibrational spectra

Isotopic substitution is most useful to identify metal-ligand vibrations

K[OsO3N] Band just above 1000 cm-1 shift when enriching

with 15N

slide21
The End !

Next: 2D and 3D-NMR - Chem-806

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