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Grades and Standards for Nursery Stock by Edward F. Gilman, professor Environmental Horticulture Department IFAS University of Florida http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/planting Florida grades and standards 1955 Passed by Florida legislature; 1965 first edition printed Developed for more

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grades and standards for nursery stock

Grades and Standards for Nursery Stock

by Edward F. Gilman, professor

Environmental Horticulture Department

IFAS

University of Florida

http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/planting

florida grades and standards
Florida grades and standards
  • 1955 Passed by

Florida legislature;

1965 first edition printed

  • Developed for more

accurate communication

between buyer/seller

  • 1998 – second edition; a 10 step process for trees
grading trees
Grading trees
  • Tree quality at planting can have a great impact on longevity in the landscape
  • Four grades exist for nursery plants in Florida. These include:

-Florida Fancy -Florida #2

-Florida #1 -Cull

florida fancy
Florida fancy
  • Single trunk
  • Branch diameter smaller

than 2/3

  • No flush cuts/open injuries
  • Crown full of foliage
  • Root ball is appropriately sized
florida 1
Florida #1
  • Requires some pruning to develop good structure
  • Has minor trunk injuries
  • Double leader in top half of tree
florida 2
Florida #2
  • Trees are misshapen or require major corrective pruning
  • Defects may take several years to correct
  • Double leader on bottom half of the tree

defect

slide8
Cull
  • Defects are not correctable
  • Lack vigor
  • May have poor trunk and branch structure, circling roots, open wounds, flush cuts, or a loose root ball
steps for determining the grade of a tree
Step 1- Grade trunk

Step 2- Branch arrangement

Step 3- Appropriate tree matrix

Step 4- Trunk caliper

Step 5- Crown spread

Step 6- Structural uniformity of crown

Step 7- Determine the lowest grade given in steps 1,2,5 and 6

Step 8- Downgrading factors

Step 9- Downgrading factors

Step 10-Roots

Steps for determining the grade of a tree
florida fancy11
Florida fancy
  • Single trunk
  • Straight or with less than 5º bow
florida 112
Florida #1

Codominant stems

  • Trunk forks in upper half of tree
  • Bow of 5º-15º
florida 213
Florida #2
  • Trunk forks in lower half of tree
  • Bow greater than 15º
  • Trunk has dogleg
  • Three or more trunks in upper half of tree

Dogleg

slide14
Cull
  • Three or more trunks in lower half of tree.

3 trunks

steps for determining the grade of a tree15
Step 1- Grade trunk

Step 2- Branch arrangement

Step 3- Appropriate tree matrix

Step 4- Trunk caliper

Step 5- Crown spread

Step 6- Structural uniformity of crown

Step 7- Determine the lowest grade given in steps 1,2,5 and 6

Step 8- Downgrading factors

Step 9- Downgrading factors

Step 10-Roots

Steps for determining the grade of a tree
florida fancy17
Florida fancy
  • Large branches spaced at least 6” apart along the trunk
  • No branch greater than 2/3 diameter of trunk
  • No vertical branches
florida 118
Florida #1
  • All branches equally dominant
  • Branches are at least 4” apart
  • One branch in upper half of tree may be greater than 2/3
  • No branch tips are taller than trunk
florida 219
Florida #2
  • Most branches vertical
  • Major branches spaced 4” apart in two or more locations
  • One branch in lower half of tree larger than 2/3
slide20
Cull
  • Vertical branching
  • Narrow branch angles
  • Major branches growing from same point or opposite from each other
  • Major branches less than 4’ from the ground
steps for determining the grade of a tree21
Step 1- Grade trunk

Step 2- Branch arrangement

Step 3- Appropriate tree matrix

Step 4- Trunk caliper

Step 5- Crown spread

Step 6- Structural uniformity of crown

Step 7- Determine the lowest grade given in steps 1,2,5 and 6

Step 8- Downgrading factors

Step 9- Downgrading factors

Step 10-Roots

Steps for determining the grade of a tree
slide23

Based on natural form of the tree

  • Type 1- Spreading and rounded shapes. Ex- Live oak, sycamore, black olive.
  • Type 2- Pyramidal shapes. Ex- Pin oak, southern magnolia, pine.
  • Type 3- Columnar/ upright shapes. Ex- Loblolly bay, Italian cypress, stopper.
  • Type 4- Vase shapes. Ex- Chinese elm, hawthorn, redbud.
  • Type 5- Oval shapes. Ex- Ash, basswood, red maple.
steps for determining the grade of a tree25
Step 1- Grade trunk

Step 2- Branch arrangement

Step 3- Appropriate tree matrix

Step 4- Trunk caliper

Step 5- Crown spread

Step 6- Structural uniformity of crown

Step 7- Determine the lowest grade given in steps 1,2,5 and 6

Step 8- Downgrading factors

Step 9- Downgrading factors

Step 10-Roots

Steps for determining the grade of a tree
slide27

Measure trunk caliper

  • Caliper- Trunk diameter measured 6” from the ground for trees up to 4” caliper, and 12” from ground for larger trees.
steps for determining the grade of a tree28
Step 1- Grade trunk

Step 2- Branch arrangement

Step 3- Appropriate tree matrix

Step 4- Trunk caliper

Step 5- Crown spread

Step 6- Structural uniformity of crown

Step 7- Determine the lowest grade given in steps 1,2,5 and 6

Step 8- Downgrading factors

Step 9- Downgrading factors

Step 10-Roots

Steps for determining the grade of a tree
grading for crown spread
Grading for crown spread
  • Measure crown spread
  • Spread must be greater or equal to the minimum for the grade

Crown Spread Diameter: The average of the widest branch spread and that perpendicular to it.

steps for determining the grade of a tree32
Step 1- Grade trunk

Step 2- Branch arrangement

Step 3- Appropriate tree matrix

Step 4- Trunk caliper

Step 5- Crown spread

Step 6- Structural uniformity of crown

Step 7- Determine the lowest grade given in steps 1,2,5 and 6

Step 8- Downgrading factors

Step 9- Downgrading factors

Step 10-Roots

Steps for determining the grade of a tree
florida fancy34
Florida fancy
  • Branches evenly distributed around trunk
  • No major branch located directly above another

Crown full of foliage

florida 135

Small void

Florida #1
  • Most branches evenly distributed
  • One major branch located directly above another
  • Not completely foliated- small voids present.
florida 236
Florida #2
  • Branches not evenly distributed
  • Several branches growing on same side
  • Two or more branches located directly above each other
  • Large voids in crown
slide37
Cull
  • Tree is one sided or flat sided
  • Major branches growing from only one or two sides
  • Large gaps in crown
steps for determining the grade of a tree38
Step 1- Grade trunk

Step 2- Branch arrangement

Step 3- Appropriate tree matrix

Step 4- Trunk caliper

Step 5- Crown spread

Step 6- Structural uniformity of crown

Step 7- Determine the lowest gradegiven in steps 1,2,5 and 6

Step 8- Downgrading factors

Step 9- Downgrading factors

Step 10-Roots

Steps for determining the grade of a tree
determine the lowest grade from steps 1 2 5 and 6
Determine the lowest grade from steps 1, 2, 5, and 6

Step 1- Florida #1

Step 2- Florida #1

Step 5- Florida fancy

Step 6- Florida #1

Lowest grade – Florida #1

steps for determining the grade of a tree41
Step 1- Grade trunk

Step 2- Branch arrangement

Step 3- Appropriate tree matrix

Step 4- Trunk caliper

Step 5- Crown spread

Step 6- Structural uniformity of crown

Step 7- Determine the lowest grade given in steps 1,2,5 and 6

Step 8- Downgrading factors-takes 1

Step 9- Downgrading factors-takes two

Step 10-Roots

Steps for determining the grade of a tree
b b root ball not properly secured
B&B root ball not properly secured

Materials used to secure B&B root balls

B&B properly secured

root bound
Root-bound

Large roots growing around outer edge of root ball

one or two roots growing out of container or grow bag
One or two roots growing out of container or grow bag

Root greater than 1/5 diameter of the trunk

steps for determining the grade of a tree50
Step 1- Grade trunk

Step 2- Branch arrangement

Step 3- Appropriate tree matrix

Step 4- Trunk caliper

Step 5- Crown spread

Step 6- Structural uniformity of crown

Step 7- Determine the lowest grade given in steps 1,2,5 and 6

Step 8- Downgrading factors-takes one

Step 9- Downgrading factors-takes 2

Step 10-Roots

Steps for determining the grade of a tree
slide51
Step 9Downgrading factors-Deduct one grade if two statements are true and two grades if more are true
flush cuts
Flush cuts

flush cut

good cut

Callus forming only around sides of flush cut. Branch collar no longer present.

graft unions not complete
Graft unions not complete

Incomplete graft union

major branches touching
Major branches touching

Branches touching

steps for determining the grade of a tree62
Step 1- Grade trunk

Step 2- Branch arrangement

Step 3- Appropriate tree matrix

Step 4- Trunk caliper

Step 5- Crown spread

Step 6- Structural uniformity of crown

Step 7- Determine the lowest grade given in steps 1,2,5 and 6

Step 8- Downgrading factors-takes 1

Step 9- Downgrading factors-takes 2

Step 10-Roots

Steps for determining the grade of a tree
slide64

Cull tree ifthe following are true

  • A root is greater than 1/10 trunk diameter, and …
  • it circles more than 1/3 the trunk, and …
  • it is in the top half of the root ball.
grades and standards for nursery stock66

Grades and Standards for Nursery Stock

by Edward F. Gilman, professor

Environmental Horticulture Department

IFAS

University of Florida

http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/planting