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Filtration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Filtration. Filtration. Single Media Rapid Sand. Dual Media Rapid Sand. Filtration Mechanisms. Surface Filtration - Screening. Particles larger than pore openings between filter Particles are removed on the surface of the filter. Rapid increase in head loss through filter – filter

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Single Media Rapid Sand

Dual Media Rapid Sand


Filtration Mechanisms

Surface Filtration - Screening

Particles larger than pore openings between filter

Particles are removed on the surface of the filter

Rapid increase in head loss through filter – filter


Deep Bed Filtration

Particles removed throughout depth of filter as the

collide with filter particles and stick. Small particles

may be removed

Slower increase in head loss – longer filter runs


Filter Cleaning

As filter removes more particles the area that will allow flow

of water becomes smaller. A smaller cross sectional area means

the velocity must increase to allow the same amount of water

to pass. This results in higher head losses.

As velocity increases, the likelihood of scouring particles off the

filter media becomes higher. This results in an increase in

particles in the effluent. Called filter beakthrough.

If the head loss gets too high or the particle count in the treated

water gets too high (measured by turbidity or particle count),

the filter must be cleaned. The cleaning process is called filter




Open valve D, close

valves A and C, open

valve B

Reverse direction of flow of water through the filter. Increase velocity until filter

media particles become fluidized (suspended in flow). Particles bump against

each other knocking the “dirt” off of them.


Design Parameters

Filter Loading rate

Around 4 gal/(min.ft2)



Chlorine Compounds

Chlorine (Cl2)

Disinfection by-products tri-halomethanes

Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)

Chlroamines (Cl2 and ammonia)

Hypochlorite ion (OCl-, bleach)




Concentration x time

Effectiveness of disinfection a function of C-T