FAVORITISM: WHY DOESN’T TEACHERCALL ON ME? Lauri A. Schmid-Snoeck Education 702.22-Spring 2010 Professor O’Connor-Petruso
Table of Contents • Introduction 3 • Statement of the Problem 4 • Review of Related Literature 5 • Statement of Hypothesis 7 • Method 8 • Instruments 9 • Experimental Design 10 • References 11
Introduction Favoritism is part of life Teachers hold a powerful position Reasons for favoritism A rose by any other name…a matter of semantics Favoritism aka: selective attention; gender-race bias; differential teacher treatment; discrimination…
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM FAVORITISM : The literature indicates that failure to create close teacher-child relationships results in • negative impact on growth of social skills and self-confidence • marginalized and differentiated teaching behaviors • lower academic achievement • greater levels of conflict and aggression in the classroom
Literature Review WHAT IS FAVORITISM • Selective attention given by someone in power (i.e. teacher) to another less powerful person (i.e. student), selected from a group of two or more and where the student has a better outcome than another.
Literature Review What does favoritism look like? Subtle-teachers and even students may not be aware (Bloom & Golden, 1982) Favorites: Studies show we make up our minds about people within seven seconds of meeting them (Butterman, 2007) Unbridled and blatant-students are aware of the teacher’s pets and their standing in the classroom (Opoku-Amankwa, 2009)
Literature Review POSSIBLE CAUSES OF FAVORITISM POWER: Teachers as the ‘authoritative identity’ (Opoku-Amankwa, 2009) or “despotic” (Levinson, 1998) UNCONSCIOUSLY RELATE: student may remind us of ourselves or someone we know ETHNICITY & RACIAL BACKGROUND: “We are socialized to relate to each other based on race, class, and so on” (Butterman, 2007) “Minority group students, both male and female, receive less teacher attention than majority group students (Brophy & Good, 1974; Rubovits & Maehr, 1973; M. Sadker & Sadker, 1984)” (Sadker, Sadker & Klein, 1991). “Culture and ethnicity are associated with differences in aspects of children’s relationships with teachers…” (Gallagher & Mayer, 2008)
Literature Review AVOIDING FAVORITISM Daniels et al (2001) studied how “to treat all children fairly”. The research suggests that Teachers must understand and reflect upon their *management style, *teaching strategies, *responsibility to grow as professionals, *power and recognize their impact and influence over students. (Butterman, 2007; Egan & Anastasia, 2009; Haydon et al, 2009; Newberry & Davis, 2008)
Statement of the Hypothesis HR1: X number of teachers may be unaware of practices of favoritism in their classroom and the impact on x number of students during a read-aloud session. A change in classroom management or practice may improve classroom equity and fairness and avoid the appearance of favoritism.
Statement of the HypothesisMETHOD Participants: X number of students in the X grade from P.S. X in Brooklyn, NY. The class is composed of x number of girls of x, y, z ethnicity or race x number of boys of x. y, z ethnicity or race The P.S. X students belong to from X socio-economic class The teacher/s has X number of years experience and X number of years of postgraduate education
Statement of the HypothesisINSTRUMENTS NYC Department of Education report card to determine demographic and economic status of P.S. X students Consent form for the principal of P.S. X Form to document observation & student/teacher comments Teacher survey
Statement of the HypothesisEXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Researcher to observe class responses elicited after a read-aloud. Document the following: Seating arrangement How students are called upon i.e. Arbitrary teacher choice or random system Do they call out; are all treated the same Student gender, ethnicity or race
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